Chapter 40: Animal Form and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 40: Animal Form and Function Deck (34)
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1

The Body - An Orientation

  • Anatomy 
    • study of the body structure
  • Physiology
    • Study of body function

2

Anatomy - Levels of Studying

  • Gross Anatomy
    • Large structures
    • Easily observable
  • Microscopic Anatomy
    • ​​Very small structures
    • Can only be viewed with a microscope

3

Levels of Organization

4

Integumentary System

  • External body covering
  • Protects deep tissue from injury
  • Helps regulates body temp
  • House nerve receptors

5

Skeletal System

  • Protects organs
  • Muscle attachment
  • Blood production
  • Stores minerals

6

Muscular System

  • Produces movement 
  • Produces heat

7

Nervous System

  • Fast acting control center
  • Receives and interprets stimuli
  • Activates muscles, glands

8

Endocrine System

  • Secretes hormones
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Metabolism

9

Cardiovascular System

  • Transport materials in body via blood pumped by heart
    • O2
    • CO2
    • Nutrients
    • Wastes

10

Lymphatic System

  • Returns fluids to blood vessels
  • Cleanses the blood
  • Involved in immunity

11

Respiratory System

  • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
  • Removes carbon dioxide

12

Digestive System

  • Breaks down food
  • Allows for nutrient absorption into blood
  • Eliminate indigestible material

13

Urinary System

  • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
  • Regulates water and electrolytes

14

Reproductive System

  • Produces offspring

15

Interrelationships Among Body Systems (picture)

16

​Body Tissues

  • Histology - study of tissues
  • Four major categories
    1. Epithelial Tissue
    2. Connective Tissue
    3. Muscle Tissue
    4. Nervous Tissue

17

Epithelial Tissue

  • Locations 
    • Body coverings
    • Body Linings
  • Functions
    • Protection
    • Absorption
    • Secretion
    • Excretion

18

Connective Tissue

  • Functions
    • Binds tissues together (tendons)
    • Support the body (bone)
    • Provide Protection (bone, blood)
    • Transport (blood)
    • Storage (bone, fat)

19

Extracellular Matrix

  • Cells scattered in an extracellular matrix
  • Two main elements:
    • 1. Ground Substance
    • 2. Fibers
      • Collagen (white) fibers
      • Elastic (yellow) fibers
      • Reticular fibers

20

​Classification of Connective Tissue

  • Can be divided into 3 subgroups
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Specialized connective tissue

21

Loose Connective Tissue

  • Not tightly woven
  • Fills spaces between organs
  • Has 2 types:
    1. Areolar 
    2. Adipose

22

Areolar Tissue (Loose)

  • Like "cobwebs"
  • Functions as a packing tissue

23

Adipose Tissue (Loose)

  • Contains many fat cells
  • Functions
    • Insulates the body
    • Protects some organs
    • Serves as fuel storage

24

Dense Connective Tissue

  • Made of tightly packed protein fibers
  • Tough collagen fibers, elastin fibers
  • Locations:
    • Tendons - attach skeletal muscle to bone
    • Ligament - attach bone to bone at joints

25

Specialized Connective Tissue

  • Bone
  • Cartilage
  • Blood

26

Bone (Specialized Connective Tissue)

  • Composed of:
    • Bone cells (osteoblasts)
    • Hard matrix of calcium salts
    • Large numbers of collagen fibers
    • Used to protect; support the body

27

Cartilage (SCT)

  1. Hyaline cartilage
    • ​​​Most common type of cartilage
    • Composed of: 
      • Collagen Fibers (glassy matrix)
    • Locations
      • Costal Ribs

28

Cartilage cont..

  • Elastic Cartilage
    • Highly elastic
    • Location:
      • The external ear
  • Fibrocartilage
    • Strong; flexible
    • Location:
      • Cushion-like discs between vertebrae

29

Blood (SCT)

  • Unique fluid tissue
  • Made of plasma and blood cells
    • Red and white blood cells
  • Transport vehicle for materials

30

Muscle Tissue

  • Function is to produce movement
  • Three muscle types
    1. Skeletal
    2. Cardiac
    3. Smooth