Chapter 34: Vertebrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 34: Vertebrates Deck (25)
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1

Chordates

  • composed of invertebrates, vertebrate group

2

Derived Characters

  • 1. Notochord
  • 2. Dorsal, hollow nerve chord
  • 3. Pharyngeal slits
  • 4. Post anal tail

3

Chordate Characteristics 

4

Lancelets

  • Belong to Subphylum Cephalochordata
  • Basal chordates
  • Lance shaped body
  • Suspension feeders

5

Tunicates

  • Belong to Subphylum Urochordata
  • Also called “sea squirts”
  • Suspension feeders
  • Lose many chordate characters as adults

6

​Vertebrates

  • are chordates with a backbone
  • All members also known as craniates

7

Cyclostomes

  • are a clade of living, jawless vertebrates
  • Called the “round mouths”
  • Include
    • 1. Hagfish
    • 2. Lampreys

8

Hagfish

  • Bottom dwelling, scavengers
  • Can produce slime, used for defense

9

Lampreys

  • are filter feeders as larva
  • Become parasites as adults

10

Gnathostomes

  • are a clade of jawed vertebrates

11

Chondricthyes

  • a clade of cartilaginous fish
  • Have an endoskeleton made of cartilage
  • Include
    • 1. Sharks
    • 2. Rays
    • 3. Ratfishes

12

Osteichthyes

  • a clade of “bony fish”… misleading
  • Have an ossified endoskeleton
  • Include
    • 1. Ray finned fish
    • 2. Lobe fins

13

Ray Finned Fish

  • Show the greatest vertebrate diversity
  • Have fins made of bony rays

14

Lobe-Fins

  • Fins made of rod shaped bones
  • Bones surrounded by thick muscles
  • Three lineages
    • 1. Coelacanths
    • 2. Lungfishes
    • 3. Tetrapods

15

Tetrapods

  • are gnathastomes that have limbs with digits
  • Include groups
    • 1. Amphibians
    • 2. Amniotes

16

Tiktaalik fossil

17

Amphibians

  • “both ways of life”
  • Poorly developed lungs, cutaneous respiration
  • Three major groups
    • 1. Salamanders - tails
    • 2. Frogs - lack tails
    • 3. Caecilians - legless

18

Amniotes

  • have a terrestrially adapted egg
  • Living members
    • 1. Reptiles
    • 2. Mammals

19

Derived traits of Amniotes

  • Major character is the amniotic egg
  • Others include
    • 2. Egg shell
    • 3. Rib cage - increases lung ventilation 

20

Reptiles

  • a clade that includes the tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds and dinosaurs
  • Have scales, create waterproof barrier
  • Shelled eggs, laid on land
  • Mostly ectothermic, absorbing external heat 

21

Origins of Bird

  • Descended from bipedal, theropod dinosaurs
  • Feathers evolved long before flight
  • Early functions
    • 1. insulation
    • 2. camouflage
    • 3. courtship
  • Archaeopteryx
    • ​​considered an early bird

22

Mammals

  • are amniotes that produce milk; have hair
  • Three groups
    • 1. Monotremes
    • 2. Marsupials
    • 3. Eutherians (Placental) 

23

Monotremes

  • are egg laying mammals
  • Lack nipples
  • Include:
    • 1. Platypus
    • 2. Echidna

24

Marsupials

  • have live births; nipples
  • Embryo connected to mother by placenta
  • Born early, complete development while nursing in pouch called marsupium
  • Members include opossum, kangaroo, koala

25

Eutherians

  • Commonly called placental mammals
  • Live birth, nipples
  • Have complex placenta
  • Young complete development in uterus