Chapter 3.1 & 3.2 Flashcards

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1
Q

perception

A

a mental process that brings understanding to what one sees

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2
Q

transduction

A

transformation of one form of information into another

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3
Q

absolute threshold

A

the amount of stimulation needed for something to be detected

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4
Q

difference threshold

A

the smallest amount that something can be changed and a difference can be detected half the time

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5
Q

weber’s law

A

the concept that the size of the “Just Noticeable Difference” is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus; the JND is large when the intensity is high and small when the intensity is low

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6
Q

signal detection theory

A

explains how we detect signals consisting of stimulation affecting our senses. Sensation is a judgement that the sensory system makes about the incoming stimulation that usually occurs outside of consciousness. This also takes the observer characteristics into account

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7
Q

sensory adaptation

A

loss of responsiveness in receptor cells after stimulation has remained unchanged for a while, as when a swimmer becomes adapted to the temperature of the water

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8
Q

retina

A

the thin light-sensitive area at the back of the eyeball containing million of photoreceptors and other nerve cells

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9
Q

photoreceptors

A

light-sensitive neurons in the retina that convert light energy to neural impulses; light does not get past these

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10
Q

rods

A

photoreceptors that are especially sensitive to dim light but not to colors…125 million in the retina

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11
Q

cones

A

photoreceptors that are especially sensitive to colors but no dim light…7 million in the retina

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12
Q

fovea

A

tiny area of sharpest vision in the very center of the retina

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13
Q

optic nerve

A

the bundle of neurons that carry that carry visual information from the retina to the brain

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14
Q

blind spot

A

the point where the optic nerve exits the eye and where no photoreceptors exist, creating a point which cannot be seen

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15
Q

brightness

A

a psychological sensation caused by the intensity (amplitude) of light waves

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16
Q

color

A

also called hue; it is not a property of the external world but only a sensation that is created in the brain using the information sent from the retina

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17
Q

electromagnetic spectrum

A

entire range of electromagnetic energy including radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, and visible light

18
Q

visible spectrum

A

the tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum in which our eyes are sensitive

19
Q

trichromatic theory

A

the idea that colors are sensed by three different types of cones sensitive to light in the red, green, and blue wavelengths; explains earliest stage of color sensation

20
Q

opponent-process theory

A

the idea that cells in the visual system process colors in complimentary pairs (red/green or yellow/blue); explains color sensation from bipolar cells onward

21
Q

afterimages

A

sensations that linger after the stimulus has been removed; most are negative, appearing in reversed colors

22
Q

color blindness

A

a genetic disorder that prevents a person from discriminating color; most common form is red-green

23
Q

frequency

A

the number of cycles completed by a wave in a second (width of the wave)

24
Q

amplitude

A

the physical strength of the wave (height of the wave)

25
Q

tympanic membrane

A

eardrum

26
Q

cochlea

A

primary organ of healing; coiled tube in inner ear where sound waves are transduced into neural messages

27
Q

basilar membrane

A

thin strip of tissue sensitive to the vibrations in the cochlea that contains hair cells connected to neurons; when the hair cells vibrate, transduction occurs

28
Q

pitch

A

sensory characteristic of sound produced by frequency of the sound wave (width of wave)

29
Q

loudness

A

sensory characteristic of sound produced by loudness of the sound wave (height of wave)

30
Q

timbre

A

quality of the sound derived from the wave’s complexity

31
Q

vestibular sense

A

the sense of body orientation in respect to gravity; associated with the inner ear

32
Q

kinesthetic sense

A

the sense of body position and movement of body parts in relation to each other

33
Q

pheremones

A

chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of their species; human use is unclear

34
Q

olfaction

A

the sense of smell

35
Q

gustation

A

the sense of taste

36
Q

skin senses

A

sensory systems for processing touch, warmth, cold, texture, and pain

37
Q

synesthesia

A

mixing of the sensations across the senses; numbers are colors, tastes like a shape

38
Q

gate-control theory

A

explanation for pain control that proposes that we have a “neural gate” that can, under certain circumstances, block incoming pain signals

39
Q

placebo

A

substances that appear to be a drug but are not; sugar pills

40
Q

placebo effect

A

the response to a placebo caused by thinking it is a real drug