Chapter 7.2 Flashcards

You may prefer our related Brainscape-certified flashcards:
1
Q

language acquisition device

A

a biologically organized mental structure in the brain that facilitates the learning of language because it is innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammer

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
2
Q

babbling

A

the production of repetitive symbols, a characteristic of the early stage of language acquisition

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
3
Q

grammer

A

the rules of language

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
4
Q

telegraphic speech

A

short, simple sentences of nouns and verbs without the use of articles, tenses, plurals, etc.

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
5
Q

morpheme

A

a meaningful unit of language that makes up words; some are whole words (read), others are a combination of units (“read” and “ing”)

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
6
Q

cognitive development

A

the global term for development of thought processes from childhood through adulthood

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
7
Q

stage theory

A

an explanation of development that emphasizes distinctive or rather abrupt changes

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
8
Q

schema

A

in Piaget’s theory, a mental structure or program that guides a person’s thoughts

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
9
Q

assimilation

A

a mental process that incorporates new information into existing schemas

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
10
Q

accommodation

A

a mental process that modifies schemas in order to include new information

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
11
Q

sensorimotor stage

A

in Piaget’s theory, the first stage in which the child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
12
Q

sensorimotor intelligence

A

Piaget’s term for the infants approach to the world, relying on relatively simple motor responses

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
13
Q

object permanence

A

the knowledge that an object exists outside of personal awareness

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
14
Q

goal-directed behavior

A

an ability that emerges during the sensorimotor period in which infants develop the ability to keep a single goal in mind and pursue it

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
15
Q

mental representation

A

the ability to form internal images of objects and events

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
16
Q

preoperational stage

A

in Piaget’s theory, the second stage marked by well-developed representation and the use of language

17
Q

egocentrism

A

in Piaget’s theory, stage 2, the inability to realize that there are other viewpoints besides one’s own

18
Q

animistic thinking

A

in Piaget’s theory, stage 2, believing that inanimate objects have life and mental ability

19
Q

irreversibility

A

in Piaget’s theory, stage 2, the inability to think through an operation and then reverse the steps

20
Q

centration

A

in Piaget’s theory, stage 2, the inability to take into account more than one factor at a time

21
Q

concrete operational stage

A

in Piaget’s theory, third stage, when a child understands conservation but is still incapable of abstract thought

22
Q

conservation

A

in Piaget’s theory, stage 3, the understanding that the physical properties of an object doesn’t change when the appearance changes but nothing is added or taken away

23
Q

mental operation

A

solving problems by manipulating an image in our mind

24
Q

theory of mind

A

an awareness that other people’s behavior may be influenced by belief, desires, or emotions that differ from one’s own

25
Q

wave metaphor

A

a way of conceptualizing cognitive development as occurring more gradually in waves than in abrupt changes

26
Q

scaffolding

A

a teaching strategy that emphasizes the role of others in helping provide support for a person’s learning

27
Q

temperment

A

an individual’s characteristic manner of behavior or reaction

28
Q

socialization

A

the lifelong process of shaping an individual to conform to what is desirable in a particular society

29
Q

authoritarian parent

A

a parenting style characterized by conformity and obedience with little tolerance and a penchant for punishment

30
Q

authoritative parent

A

a parenting style characterized by high expectations with consequences but high standards of warmth and respect for the child’s views

31
Q

permissive parent

A

a parenting style characterized by setting few rules and allowing children to make their own decisions/mistakes, while being caring and communicative

32
Q

uninvolved parent

A

a parenting style characterized by indifference and rejection, sometimes to the point of neglect or abuse

33
Q

autonomy

A

a sense of independence as opposed to self-doubt

34
Q

initiative

A

being proactive instead of being reactive/not measuring up to expectations

35
Q

industry

A

sense of confidence