chapter 31 quiz Flashcards Preview

Biology 1201: Organisms and Diversity > chapter 31 quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 31 quiz Deck (69):
1

Tissues are

Collections of specialized cells of the same or a similar type that perform a common function in the body

2

The four tissue types are:

Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous

3

Epithelial Tissue (epithelium)

Forms a continuous layer over body surfaces
Lines body cavities
Forms glands

4

Epithelial cells may be connected to one another by

Tight junctions
Adhesion junctions
Gap junctions

5

Functions of Epithelial tissue

Protection
Secretion
Absorption
Excretion
Filtration

6

Simple Epithelia

A single layer of cells

7

Simple Epithelia is Classified according to cell type

Squamous epithelium
Cuboidal epithelium
Columnar epithelium

8

Squamous epithelium

flattened cells

9

Cuboidal epithelium

cubed shaped cells

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Columnar epithelium

cells representing columns

11

Stratified Epithelia

Layers of cells

12

Glandular Epithelia

Secretes a product

13

gland

can be a single epithelial cell or can contain many cells.

14

Exocrine glands

Secrete products into ducts or cavities

15

Endocrine glands

Secrete products internally so they are transported into the bloodstream

16

Connective tissue

Diverse in structure and function but all types have
Specialized cells
Ground substance – Noncellular material
Protein fibers

17

Collagen fibers

contain collagen providing strength and flexibility

18

Reticular fibers

contain thin, highly branched collagen fibers

19

Elastic fibers

contain elastin, not as strong but more elastic than collagen

20

connective matrix

ground substance plus fibers

21

Three categories of connective tissue are

Fibrous
Supportive
Fluid

22

Fibrous Connective Tissue

Consists of:
Fibroblast cells
A jellylike matrix containing collagen and elastic fibers

23

Loose fibrous connective tissue

Allows organs to expand
Supports epithelium and many internal organs
Forms protective covering over internal organs

24

Adipose tissue

Stores energy
Insulates the body and provides padding
Mostly white, but brown in newborns due to increased numbers of mitochondria

25

Dense fibrous connective tissue

Strong connective tissue
Tendons – connect muscle to bone
Ligaments – connect bones to other bones at joints

26

Supportive Connective Tissue

Cartilage
Bone

27

Cartilage

Classified according to type of collagen and elastic fibers found in the matrix (hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage)
Cartilage cells lie in small chambers (lacuna) in the matrix.
Cartilage lacks a direct blood supply and heals very slowly.

28

Hyaline

Consists of very fine collagen fibers
Matrix is translucent
Found in nose and ends of long bones and ribs

29

Elastic

More elastic fibers than hyaline
More flexible
Found in framework of outer ear

30

Fibrocartilage

Matrix contains strong collagen fibers
Found in structures that withstand tension and pressure
Found in pads between vertebrae in backbone

31

Bone

Most rigid connective tissue

Matrix is inorganic salts deposited around protein fibers
Bone cells are located in lacunae.
Lacunae arranged in concentric circles within osteons around tiny tubes (central canals)

32

Bone Consists of hard matrix of inorganic salts

Mostly calcium
Provides rigidity

33

Bone Deposited around protein fibers

Especially collagen
Provides elasticity and strength

34

Types of Bone

compact
spongy

35

Compact bone

Makes up shaft of long bone
Consists of cylindrical units called osteons
Blood vessels in central canal carry nutrients

36

Spongy bone

Makes up ends of long bone
Contains bony bars and plates separated by air spaces
Site of red bone marrow, which produces blood cells

37

Fluids

Blood
Lymph

38

Blood

A connective tissue in which cells are embedded in a liquid matrix (plasma)
Red blood cells – oxygen transport
Small disk-like cells without nuclei
White blood cells – immune response
Larger than red blood cells and have a nucleus
Platelets – involved in the clotting process
Fragments of larger cells present only in bone marrow

39

Blood functions

Transports nutrients and oxygen to cells
Removes carbon dioxide and other wastes
Helps distribute heat and plays a role in fluid, ion, and pH balance

40

Lymph

A fluid connective tissue located in lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic capillaries called lacteals absorb fat molecules from the small intestine.

41

Muscular (Contractile) Tissue

Contractile cells containing actin and myosin filaments
Cells are called muscle fibers.

42

Three types of muscle tissue

skeletal muscle
smooth (visceral) muscle
cardiac muscle

43

Skeletal Muscle

Voluntary – Long, striated fibers, multinucleated

44

Smooth (Visceral) Muscle

Involuntary – No striations

45

cardiac muscle

Striated, but mostly involuntary
Cells are bound to each other by intercalated disks.
Have one single, centrally placed nucleus

46

What are some functions of the Nervous system?

Sensory input
Data integration
Motor output

47

Nervous Tissue

Conducts electrical impulses
Conveys information from one area to another
types: Neurons, Neuroglia

48

Neurons

Transmit information
Consist of dendrites, a cell body, and an axon
An axon and its myelin sheath, if it has one, is called a fiber.
Outside the brain and spinal cord, fibers bound by connective tissue form nerves.

49

Neuroglia

Support and nourish neurons
Neuroglia in brain include
Microglia
Astrocytes
Glial cell-derived growth factor is being studied as a possible Parkinson disease treatment.
Oligodentrocytes

50

Organ

Composed of two or more tissue types working together for a particular function

51

organ system

Composed of various organs that cooperate to carry out a general process
Example: digestion of food

52

Body Cavities:

Dorsal cavity (toward the back)

Ventral cavity (toward the front) is divided into

53

Dorsal cavity (toward the back)

It contains the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal.
The brain is in the cranial cavity.
The spinal cord is in the vertebral canal.

54

Ventral cavity (toward the front) is divided into

The thoracic cavity (includes heart and lungs),
The abdominal cavity (most other internal organs), and
The pelvic cavity (urinary bladder, female reproductive organs, certain male reproductive organs)

55

The organ systems of the human body contribute to

homeostasis

56

Importance of Homeostasis for Astronauts

The fact that astronauts need special suits to survive in space reminds us that the internal environment of our bodily functions must stay within normal limits.
Example: Enzymes function best at around 37°C
An astronaut depends on artificial systems in addition to natural systems to maintain homeostasis.

57

Examples of Homeostatic Regulation

The organ systems of the human body contribute to homeostasis.
The digestive system
Takes in and digests food
Provides nutrient molecules that replace used nutrients.
The respiratory system
Adds oxygen to the blood
Removes carbon dioxide
The liver and the kidneys
Store excess glucose as glycogen
Later, glycogen is broken down to replace the glucose used.
The hormone insulin regulates glycogen storage.
The kidneys
Under hormonal control as they excrete wastes and salts that can affect the pH of the blood

58

Homeostatic Control

Homeostasis is, to a degree, controlled by hormones.
But is ultimately controlled by the nervous system

59

Negative feedback

is the primary homeostatic mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set value.
The sensor detects change in environment.
Regulatory center initiates an action to bring the conditions back to normal.

60

Positive feedback

is a mechanism that brings about an ever greater change in the same direction.
Childbirth process
Positive Feedback
Does not result in equilibrium
Does not occur as often as negative feedback

61

The Integumentary System

Functions of skin
Largest and most conspicuous organ system
Covers and protects underlying body regions
Regulates body temperature
Contains sensory receptors
Involved in exchange of gases with environment in small aquatic animals
Manufactures precursors to vitamin D after UV exposure
Skin and its derivatives make up the integumentary system

62

Regions of the Skin

Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous Layer

63

Epidermis

Outer, thinner region
Stratified squamous epithelium
New cells are pushed outward, become keratinized, and are sloughed off.
Melanocytes produce melanin (pigment).
UV radiation can cause mutations in the DNA of skin cells, leading to skin cancer.

64

Dermis

Deeper and thicker than epidermis
Fibrous connective tissue containing elastic and collagen fibers contains:
Receptors
Nerve fibers
Blood vessels

65

Subcutaneous Layer

Loose, connective tissue located below dermis, also known as hypodermis

66

Accessory Structures of Human Skin

Nails, Hair follicles, Sweat glands

67

Nails

Grow from nail root and form protective covering of distal portion of fingers and toes

68

Hair follicles

Begin in the dermis and continue through the epidermis
Contain oil glands (sebaceous glands) which secrete sebum
Lubricates the hair within the follicle as well as the skin

69

Sweat glands

Present in all regions of the skin
Begin in dermis and open either to a hair follicle or to the surface of the skin
Function to help maintain constant body temperature