chapter 32 pp Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 32 pp Deck (68):
1

Small aquatic animals with no circulatory system

Each cell is exposed to water and can independently exchange gases and eliminate wastes.

2

Pseudocoelomates

“false cavity”
Use the coelomic fluid of their body cavity as a means of transporting substances

3

Coelomate echinoderms

: double lined gut cavity
Also rely on movement of coelomic fluid within a body cavity as a circulatory system
May still rely on body fluids for the purpose of locomotion

4

Two types of circulatory fluids

Blood – contained within blood vessels
Hemolymph – mixture of blood and tissue fluid that fills the body cavity and surrounds internal organs

5

Open Circulatory System

They were first to evolve.
The heart pumps hemolymph via vessels.
Vessels empty into tissue spaces.
Hemolymph drains back into heart

6

Closed Circulatory System

Most cells in the body aren’t far from a capillary.
Heart pumps blood to capillaries.
Gases and materials diffuse to and from nearby cells.
Vessels return blood to the heart without contact between blood and tissues.

7

cardiovascular system.

All vertebrates have a closed circulatory system

8

Vertebrate heart

Atria of the heart receives blood from general circulation
Ventricles of the heart pump blood out through blood vessels

9

Vertebrate vessels

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins

10

Arteries

Carry blood away from heart

11

Arterioles

Small arteries which lead to capillaries
Diameters are regulated by nervous and endocrine systems (ex. Temp. control).

12

Capillaries

Exchange materials with tissue fluid (interstitial)

13

Venules

Join to form a vein

14

Veins

Return blood to heart
Both venules and veins collect blood from capillary beds

15

fish

Blood flows in single loop
Single atrium and single ventricle

16

Amphibians

Blood flows in double loop
Systemic circuit and pulmonary circuit
Two atria with a single ventricle

17

Most reptiles

A septum partially divides the ventricle
Mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood is kept to a minimum.
In crocodilians, septum completely separates the ventricle.

18

Birds and mammals

Blood flows in a double loop (two circuits)

19

Birds and mammals types of circuits in circulatory system

The heart is also divided by septum into separate sides.
Right ventricle pumps blood to lungs; left ventricle pumps blood to rest of body.
Blood pressure is adequate for both pulmonary and systemic circuits.

20

The Human Heart

Fist-sized
Located between lungs directly behind sternum (breastbone)
Muscular organ (cardiac fibers)
Lies within a membranous sac (the pericardium)

21

vessels

c

22

The septum

separates the heart into left and right sides.
Each side has two chambers.

23

atria in the human heart

Upper two chambers are the atria
Thin-walled
Receive blood from circulation

24

ventricles in the human heart

Lower two chambers are the ventricles
Thick-walled
Pump blood away from heart

25

Valves
Types of valves

open and close to control blood flow through the heart.
1. Atrioventricular valves
2. Semilunar valves

26

Atrioventricular valves

Tricuspid valve between right atrium and ventricle
Bicuspid valve between left atrium and ventricle

27

Semilunar valves

Pulmonary semilunar valve between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
Aortic semilunar valve between left ventricle and aorta

28

Systole

Contraction of heart chambers

29

Diastole

Relaxation of heart chambers

30

Cardiac cycle

Two-part pumping action that takes about a second

31

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A recording of electrical changes that occurs in the myocardium during cardiac cycle

32

The human cardiovascular system includes two major circular pathways:

Pulmonary Circuit
Systemic Circuit

33

Systemic Circuit

Takes O2-rich blood from the heart to tissues throughout the body, returning O2-poor blood to the heart through the venae cavae

34

Pulmonary Circuit

Takes O2-poor blood to the lungs, returning O2-rich blood to the heart

35

portal system

blood from capillaries goes through veins to another set of capillaries without traveling first through the heart.
Example: hepatic portal system takes blood from intestines directly to the liver

36

Blood Pressure

Contraction of the heart supplies pressure that keeps blood moving in the arteries.
Normally measured with a sphygmomanometer on the brachial artery, an artery on the upper arm.
Example: 120/80, represents systolic and diastolic pressures

37

Systolic pressure

results from blood forced into the arteries during ventricular systole.

38

Diastolic pressure

is the pressure in the arteries during ventricular diastole.

39

how is blood pressure measured

Blood pressure Is measured in millimeters (mm) of mercury.

40

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Leading cause of death in most Western countries

41

Hypertension

High blood pressure
30% of Americans are sufferers
Caused by narrowing of arteries due to atherosclerosis

42

Atherosclerosis

Accumulation of fatty materials between the inner linings of arteries
Deposits are called plaque
A clot, called a thrombus, may form on an arterial wall

43

Stroke

A disruption of blood supply to the brain
Results when a cranial arteriole bursts or is blocked by an embolus

44

Angina pectoris

Painful squeezing sensation from myocardial oxygen insufficiency due to partial blockage of a coronary artery

45

Heart attack (myocardial infarction)

Coronary artery becomes completely blocked
Stents, or self-expanding wire mesh tubes, can be inserted into blocked artery to keep it open.
If stents are unsuccessful, a coronary bypass may be required in which a surgeon replaces artery with a healthy artery from elsewhere in the body

46

blood

Transports gases, nutrients, waste products, antibodies, and hormones throughout the body
Helps combat pathogenic microorganisms
Helps maintain water balance and pH
Regulates body temperature
Carries platelets and factors that ensure clotting to prevent blood loss

47

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

Small, biconcave disks
Lack a nucleus and contain hemoglobin

48

Hemoglobin contains

Four globin protein chains
Each associated with heme, an iron-containing group
Manufactured continuously in bone marrow of skull, ribs, vertebrae, and ends of long bones

49

If the number of RBC is insufficient or if cells don’t have enough hemoglobin, the individual has

anemia.
The hormone, erythropoetin, stimulates RBC production.

50

Blood Types

Blood type is determined by the presence or absence of a surface antigen.
ABO System
Rh System

51

Antibodies in the plasma can cause

agglutination. “stickiness”
Cross-reactions occur when antigens meet antibodies.
Organ damage can result.

52

O is considered

the universal donor

53

White Blood Cells (WBCs)

Contain a nucleus and lack hemoglobin
Important in inflammatory response
Five main types can be identified.
Divided into two categories based on presence or absence of cytoplasmic granules:

54

Granular Leukocytes (WBCs)

Contain granules composed of proteins and enzymes used to help defend the body against invading organisms

55

Neutrophils (WBCs)

phagocytize and digest bacteria

56

Basophil (WBCs)

contain histamine

57

Eosinophils (WBCs)

involved in fighting parasitic worms, among other activities

58

Agranular Leukocytes

Lack granules

59

Monocytes

migrate into tissues in response to chronic, ongoing infections
Differentiate into macrophages
Fight infection, release growth factors that increase the production of WBCs by the bone marrow

60

Lymphocytes

T cells and B cells involved in the immune response and antibody production

61

Platelets

Non-cellular, formed elements
150,000–300,000 per cubic millimeter of blood

Involved in blood clotting

62

clotting

(coagulation)
A blood clot consists of:
Platelets
Red blood cells
Fibrin threads

63

enzymes that are blood clotts

-Thrombin is an enzyme that, when activated by prothrombin activator, converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
-Fibrin threads wind around the platelet plug to provide a framework for a clot.
-Plasmin destroys the fibrin network

64

Capillary Exchange

Capillaries are very narrow and tiny RBCs must go through single file.
The movement of fluid through a capillary wall is controlled by osmotic pressure and blood pressure.
Walls of capillaries are very thin to facilitate diffusion of nutrients, gases, and wastes

65

Solutes diffuse into and out of a capillary according to

their concentration gradient.
Oxygen and nutrients diffuse out of capillaries.
Carbon dioxide and wastes diffuse into the capillary.

66

Substances leaving capillaries contribute to

interstitial fluid

67

lymph

Excess interstitial fluid is collected by lymphatic capillaries

68

Lymph is returned to systemic venous blood when

the major lymphatic vessels enter the subclavian veins in the shoulder region.