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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (34):
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Nucleus

Large structure inside the cell that contains the DNA

1

Nuclear membrane

Membrane that surrounds the nucleus (DNA)

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Nucleolus

Large dark structure within the nucleus

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Ribosomes

Where proteins are assembled

4

Golgi apparatus (bodies)

Aids in substance synthesis and packages product cells make, in vesicles

5

Plasma membrane

A protein and lipid bilayer that surrounds the cell and controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell

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Mitochondrion

Produces energy

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Cytoskeleton

Gives the cell structure

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Peroxisome

Help cells destroy hydrogen peroxide

9

Lysosome

Contain enzymes that digest things. Used to destroy organisms of unwanted organelles or whole cells

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Rough endoplasmic reticulum

A transportation inside the cell, contains ribosomes on its surface

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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

A transportation inside the cell, without ribosomes

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Centriole (animal)

Helps with cell division

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Chloroplast (plants, some protists)

Where photosynthesis occurs

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Cell wall (plants, fungi)

Provides structure for the plant

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Flagella

Long whiplike tail used for movement

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Cilia

Short hairlike structures that move things

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Permeable

Allows things to pass through

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Impermeable

Won't allow things to pass through

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Semi-permeable

Allows only certain materials to pass

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Diffusion

Movement of substances from regions of higher concentration to lower concentration

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Osmosis

The movement of water across membranes from higher to lower concentration

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Hypertonic

The solute concentration is higher outside the cell than inside

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Hypotonic

The solute concentration is lower outside than inside

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Isotonic

The solute concentration balanced inside and outside

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Passive transport

The movement of substances by diffusion into or out of a cell, without cellular energy required

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Active transport

Movement of substances into or out of a cell by the use of cellular energy

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Homeostasis

To keep things in balance, staying the same

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What are 3 things that living things need to regulate

- body temperature
- blood sugar
- oxygen

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How do single cell organisms gain and get rid of certain materials?

Take in and put out across their membrane

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How do multi-cellular organisms gain and get rid of certain materials?

We use systems

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Structure of cell membranes

- carbs hold adjoining cells together= outer surface
- proteins help move things= scattered
- lipids protect the cell= outer surface

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Concentration of- hypotonic
- isotonic
- hypertonic

- Lower outside than inside
- Same concentration
- Higher outside than inside

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Cytoplasm

The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus