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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (5):

Photosynthesis equation



Structure of chloroplasts and where dependent and independent stages happen

Chloroplasts have grana (plural, stack of thylakoids) and stroma (fluid that bathes grana)

Light dependent
• Happens in chloroplasts, thylakoid membranes
• Converts light energy to chemical energy
• Sunlight enables water to split H+ which NADP (carrier molecule) takes
• ATP is made
• Oxygen is a by product

Light independent
• Happens in stroma
• ATP releases energy, NADPH releases H
• CO2 and release of energy is used in Calvin Cycle


Inputs and outputs of dependent and independent stages

Dependent: H2O, ADP+Pi, NADP+, solar energy
Independent: ATP, NADPH, CO2
ADP+Pi, NADP+, glucose


Cellular respiration

transfer of chemical energy stored in glucose into the chemical energy of ATP for use by cells for staying alive

Aerobic respiration: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, ETP
Glycolysis: occurs in cytosol
glucose is broken down into two pyruvates (net yield of two ATP molecules)
Krebs Cycle: occurs in matrix
net yield of 2 ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH2
Electron transport chain: occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria
net yield of about 26 ATP


Anaerobic respiration

does not require oxygen
In mammals: required in short, intense bursts
cannot sustain life and can only be maintained for a short period
Glucose-> Lactic acid+ATP
In yeast: facultative anaerobes
Glucose-> ethanol, carbon dioxide, ATP