Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

psych 135 > Chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (22):
1

self-concept

The overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributes

2

independent view of the self

a way of defining oneself in terms of one's own internal thoughts feelings, and actions and not in terms of the thoughts feelings, and actions of other people

3

what does the self do?

self-knowledge, self-control, impression management, self-esteem

4

introspection

The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives

5

self-awareness theory

The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values

6

causal theories

Theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture (e.g., “absence makes the heart grow fonder”)

7

self-perception theory

The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs

8

two-factor theory of emotion

The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanationfor it

9

misattribution of arousal

The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do

10

intrinsic motivation

The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards or pressures

11

extrinsic motivation

The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting

12

overjustification effort

The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons

13

task-contigent rewards

Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done

14

performance-contingent rewards

Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task

15

fixed mindset

The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change

16

growth mindset

The idea that achievement is the result of hard work, trying new strategies, and seeking input from others

17

social comparison theory

The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people

18

upward social comparison

Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability

19

downward social comparison

Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we are with regard to a particular trait or ability

20

social tuning

The process whereby people adopt another person’s attitudes

21

Interdependent view of the self

A way of defining oneself in terms of one’s relationships to other people, recognizing that one’s behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others

22

self-control

The ability to subdue immediate desires to achieve long-term goals.