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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (17):


evaluation of people, objects, and ideas


cognitively based attitude

an attitude based primarily on people's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
-allows us to classify the pluses and minuses


affectively based attitude

an attitude based more on people's feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object


classical conditioning

phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly paired with neutral that does not, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus


operant conditioning

phenomenon whereby behaviors we freely choose to perform become more or less frequent depending on whether they are followed by a reward or punishment


behaviorally based attitude

an attitude based on observations of how one behaves towards an object


explicit attitudes

attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report


implicit attitudes

attitudes that exist outside of conscious awareness


attitude accessibility

strength of the association between an attitude object and a person's evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object


theory of planned behavior

the idea that people's intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate attitudes towards specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control


persuasive communication

message advocating a particular side of an issue


Yale attitude change approach

the study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on the source of communication (how expert or attractive the speaker is), the nature of communication (the quality of the arguments, whether the speak presents both sides of the issues, and the nature of the audience (whether the audience is hostile or friendly to the point of view in question)


elaboration likelihood model

a model explaining two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (who gives the speech or how long it is)


central route to persuasion

the case in which people have both the ability and the motivation to elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments presented


peripheral route to persuasion

the case in which people do not elaborate on the arguments in persuasive communication but are instead swayed by more superficial cues


attitude inoculation

making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position


Reactance theory

the idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state or resistance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the prohibited behavior