Chapter 5 The Cardiovascular System Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 The Cardiovascular System Medical Terms Deck (127):
1

medications administered to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure

ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme)

2

a disorder characterized by lower than normal level of red blood cells in the blood

anemia

3

a localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery

aneurysm

4

the surgical removal of an aneurysm

aneurysmectomy

5

surgical suturing of an aneurysm

aneurysmorrhaphy (aneurysmoplasty)

6

episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium

angina (angina pectoris)

7

the film produced by angiography

angiogram

8

a radiographic study of the blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium

angiography

9

mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed blood vessel

angioplasty

10

abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel

angiostenosis

11

medication administered to control irregularities of the heartbeat

antiarrhythmic

12

medication that slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming

anticoagulant

13

medication administered to lower blood pressure

antihypertensive

14

a condition marked by the absence of all formed blood elements

aplastic anemia

15

a loss of the normal rhythm of the heart beat

arrhythmia

16

surgical removal of part of an artery

arteriectomy

17

abnormal narrowing of an artery or arteries

arteriostenosis

18

abnormal hardening of the walls of an artery or arteries 

arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)

19

electronic device used primarily as treatment for bradycardia or atrial fibrillation

artificial pacemaker

20

medication that may be recommended in a very small daily dose to reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke by slightly reducing the ability of the blood to clot

aspirin

21

complete lack of electrical activity in the heart

asystole (flat line)

22

surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior lining of an artery

atherectomy

23

a deposit of fatty plaque on or within the arterial wall

atheroma

24

hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to a buidup of cholesterol plaque

atherosclerosis

25

rapid irregular twitching of the muscular wall of the atria

atrial fibrillation (A-fib)

26

electronic equipment that externally shocks the heart to restore a normal cardiac rhythm

automated external defibrillator

27

inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by bacteria in the bloodstream

bacterial endocarditis

28

medications administered to reduce the workload of the heart by slowing the heartbeat

beta-blockers

29

any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood

blood dyscrasia

30

an abnormally slow resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute

bradycardia

31

medications that cause the heart and blood vessels to relax by decreasing the movement of calcium into the cells of these structures

calcium channel blocker agents

32

an event in which the heart abruptly stops beating or develops an arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood

cardiac arrest

33

a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is passed into a vein or artery and guided into the heart

cardiac catheterization

34

the puncture of a chamber of the heart for diagnosis or therapy

cardiocentesis

35

abnormal enlargement of the heart

cardiomegaly

36

all diseases of the heart muscle

cardiomyopathy

37

an emergency procedure for life support consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac compression

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

38

an inflammation of the heart

carditis

39

surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery

carotid endarterectomy

40

an ultrasound study of the carotid artery that is performed to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke

carotid ultrasonography

41

a fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body

cholesterol

42

medications, such as statins, that are administered to reduce the undesirable cholesterol levels in the blood

cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins)

43

a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves

chronic venous insufficiency (venous insufficiency)

44

structure abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally before birth

congenital heart defects

45

a surgical procedure in which a piece of vein from the leg is implanted on the heart to replace a blocked coronary artery

coronary artery bypass graft (bypass surgery)

46

atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle

coronary artery disease

47

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

coronary thrombosis

48

the brand name for warfarin, an anticoagulant administered to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger

coumadin (warfarin)

49

the condition of having a thrombus attached to the interior wall of a deep vein

deep vein thrombosis (deep venous thrombosis)

50

the use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm

defibrillation (cardioversion)

51

a diagnostic technique that combines angiography with computerized components to clarify the view of the area of interest by removing soft tissue and bone from the image

digital subtraction angiography

52

medication that strengthens the heart muscle contractions, slows the heart rate, and helps eliminate fluid from body tissues

digitalis (digoxin)

53

medication administered to increase urine secretion to rid the body of excess salt and water

diuretics

54

a diagnostic procedure to image the structures of the blood vessels and the flow of blood through these vessels

duplex ultrasound

55

a record of the electrical activity of the myocardium

electrocardiogram

56

the noninvasive process of recording the electrical activity of the myocardium 

electrocardiography 

57

the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

embolism

58

a foreign object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor, that is circulating in the blood

embolus

59

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

endocarditis

60

a rapid and uncontrolled heart beat

fibrillation

61

a chronic condition in which the heart is unable to pump out all the blood it receives

heart failure (congestive heart failure (CHF) )

62

an abnormal blowing or clicking sound heard when listening to the heart or neighboring large blood vessels

heart murmur

63

a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels

hemangioma

64

a genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron

hemochromatosis (iron overload disease)

65

condition characterized by an inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to their premature destruction by the spleen

hemolytic anemia

66

the loss of a large amount of blood in a short time

hemorrhage

67

to stop or control bleeding

hemostasis

68

the form of cholesterol that does not contribute to plaque buildup

high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

69

a portable electrocardiograph worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24- or 48- hour period

Holter monitor

70

the general term used to describe elevated levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood

hyperlipidemia

71

a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part

hypoperfusion

72

lower than normal arterial blood pressure

hypotension

73

a decrease in the red cells of the blood that is caused by too little iron

iron-deficiency anemia

74

a condition in which there is an insufficient supply of oxygen in the tissue due to restricted blood flow to a part of the body

ischemia

75

a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

ischemic heart disease

76

removing plaque deposit in an artery using beams of light from a laser on the end of a catheter

laser angioplasty

77

a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal white blood cells found in blood-forming tissues, other organs, and in circulating blood

leukemia

78

a decrease in the number of white blood cells circulating in the blood

leukopenia (low white blood cell count)

79

the form of cholesterol that contributes to plaque buildup in the arteries

low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

80

a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which red blood cells are larger than normal

megaloblastic anemia

81

a bypass procedure performed with the aid of a fiberoptic camera through small openings between the ribs

minimally invasive coronary artery bypass (keyhole bypass or buttonhole bypass)

82

a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells

myelodysplastic syndrome

83

the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup

myocardial infarction (heart attack)

84

inflammation of the myocardium

myocarditis

85

a vasodilator that is prescribed to prevent or relieve the pain of angina

nitroglycerin

86

low blood pressure that occurs upon standing

orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension)

87

a pounding or racing heart with or without irregularity in rhythm

palpitation

88

an episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atria or AV node

paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)

89

a treatment procedure to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (balloon angioplasty)

90

inflammation of the pericardium

pericarditis

91

an example of a peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. impaired circulation to the extremities and vital organs causes changes in the skin color and temperature, plus intermittent claudication

peripheral arterial occlusive disease (peripheral artery disease)

92

disorder of blood vessels outside the heart and brain

peripheral vascular disease

93

anemia caused by a lack of protein that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract

pernicious anemia

94

inflammation of a vein

phlebitis (thrombophlebitis) 

95

a radiographic test that provides an image of veins after contrast dye is injected

phlebography (venography)

96

a fatty deposit within the blood vessels; also a soft buildup of bacterial debris on the exterior of the teeth; also a scaly, solid, raised area of closely spaced papules on the skin

plaque

97

the removal of whole blood from the body, separation of its cellular elements, and reinfusion of these cellular elements suspended in saline or a plasma substitute

plasmapheresis (plasma exchange)

98

a form of vasculitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time

polyarteritis

99

an abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by bone marrow

polycythemia

100

a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress

Raynaud's disease

101

the condition when an artery that has been opened by angioplasty closes again

restenosis

102

caused by the presence of bacteria in the blood, symptoms include fever, tachypnea, and tachycardia

septicemia

103

a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in red blood cells that assume an abnormal sickle shape

sickle cell anemia

104

a wire-mesh tube that is implanted in a coronary artery to provide support to the arterial wall

stent

105

the use of electrocardiography to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress such as exercise on a treadmill

stress test

106

an abnormally rapid resting heartbeat usually at a rate of more than 100 beats per minute

tachycardia

107

a form of vasculitis with abnormally large cells, that can cause headache, visual impairment, or other symptoms

temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis)

108

an inherited blood disorder that causes mild or severe anemia due to reduced hemoglobin and fewer red blood cells that normal

thalassemia (Cooley's anemia)

109

performed to evaluate blood flow to the heart during exercise by injecting a small amount of thallium into the blood

thallium stress test

110

a condition in which there is an abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood

thrombocytopenia

111

an abnormal increase in the number of platelets in the circulating blood

thrombocytosis

112

medication that dissolves or causes a thrombus to break up

thrombolytic (clot-busting drug)

113

the abnormal condition of having a thrombus

thrombosis

114

the blocking of an artery by a thrombus

thrombotic occlusion

115

a blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein

thrombus

116

a thrombolytic administered to some patients having a heart attack or stroke to dissolve damaging blood clots

tissue plasminogen activator

117

a serious and potentially fatal complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match

transfusion reaction

118

the surgical repair of a heart valve

valvoplasty (valvuloplasty)

119

the abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely

valvular prolapse

120

a condition in which there is narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart

valvular stenosis

121

an inflammation of a heart valve

valvulitis

122

abnormally swollen veins usually occuring in the superficial veins of the legs

varicose veins

123

inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel

vasculitis

124

medication that causes blood vessels to narrow

vasoconstrictor

125

medication that causes blood vessels to expand

vasodilator

126

rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles

ventricular fibrillation (V-fib)

127

a very rapid heartbeat that begins within the ventricles

ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)

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