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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (19):
1

thunderheads

An approaching cold front produces rapidly moving, towering clouds.

2

air pressure

results from zillions of tiny molecules of gases (mostly nitrogen and oxygen) in the atmosphere zipping around at incredible speeds and hitting and bouncing off anything they encounter.

3

dew point

When the temperature drops below a certain level where condensation takes place, moisture in the air condenses and forms clouds.

4

prevailing winds

major surface winds that blow almost continually and distribute air and moisture over the earth's surface.

5

upwelling

Movement of nutrient-rich bottom water to the ocean;s surface. This can occur far from shore but usually occurs along certain steep costal areas where the surface layer of ocean water is pushed away from the shore and replaced by cold, nutrient-rich bottom water.

6

El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

Every few years in the Pacific Ocean, normal shore upwellings are affected by changes in climate patterns.

7

latitude

Distance from the equator

8

altitude

Height above sea level.

9

semidesert

is dominated by thorn tress and shrubs adapted to long dry spells followed by brief, sometimes heavy rain. between deserts and grasslands.

10

chaparral

Closeness to the sea provides a slightly longer winter rainy season than nearby temperate deserts have, and fogs during the spring and fall evaporation.

11

succulent plants

Plants, such as desert cacti, that survive in dry climates by having no leaves, thus reducing the loss of scarce water, They store water and use sunlight to produce the food they need in the thick, fleshy tissue of their green stems and branches.

12

permafrost

Perennially frozen layer of soil pores that forms when the water there freezes. It is found in arctic tundra.

13

alpine tundra

occurs above the limit of tree growth but below the permeant snow line high mountains. Vegetation is similar to that found in arctic tundra, but it gets more sunlight that arctic vegetation and has no permafrost layer.

14

epiphytes

air plants, such as some types orchids and other plants.

15

tree plantations

Site planted with one or only a few tree species in an even aged stand. When the stand matures it is usually harvested by clear-cutting and then replanted. These farms normally are used to grow rapidly goring tree species for fuelwood, timber, or pulpwood.

16

coniferous evergreen trees

Cone-bearing plants (such as spruces, pines, and firs) that keep some of their narrow, pointed leaves (needles) all year.

17

costal coniferous forests

aka temperate rain forests, found in scattered costal temperate areas with ample rainfall or moisture from dense ocean fogs.

18

bogs

during the summer the soil becomes waterlogged forming acidic bogs, in plow-lying areas of these forests.

19

islands of biodiversity

many freestanding mountains are islands of biodiversity, surrounded by a sea of lower-elevation landscapes transformed by human activities.