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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (12):

Life cycle cost

initial cost plus lifetime operating costs.


hybrid electric internal combustion engine

a type of energy-efficient car uses this. it runs on gasoline, diesel fuel, natural gas and uses a small battery (recharged by the internal combustion engine) to provide the energy needed for acceleration and hill climbing.


fuel cell

a device that combines hydrogen gas (H2) and oxygen gas (O2) fuel to produce electricity and water vapor (2 H2 + O2 ----- 2 H2O)


super-insulated house

such houses typically cost 5% more to build than conventional houses of the same size.


ecoroofs (green roofs)

covered with plants have been used in Germany, in other parts of Europe, and in Iceland for decades. With proper design, these plant-covered roof gardens provide good insulation, absorb storm water and release it slowly, outlast conventional roofs, and make building or home more energy efficient.


passive solar heating system

absorbs and stores heat from the sun directly within a structure.


active solar heating system

absorbs energy from the sun by pumping a heat-absorbing fluid (such a water or antifreeze solution)through special collectors usually mounted on a roof or on special racks to face the sun.


photovoltaic (PV) cells (solar cells)

solar energy can be converted directly into electrical energy by using these cells. a typical solar cell is a transparent wafer containing a semiconductor material with a thickness ranging from less than that of a human hair to a sheet of paper.



gas or liquid fuel (such as ethyl alcohol) made from plant material. (biomass)


geothermal energy

consists of heat stored in soil, underground rocks, and fluids in the earth's mantle.


micropower systmes

generate 1-10,000 kilowatts.


Energy efficiency

is a measure of the useful energy produced by an energy conversion device compared to the energy that ends up being converted to low-quality, essentially useless heat.