Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (52):
1

polyculture

planting a mixture of different crops in the same area. this involves planting a mix of perennial grasses, legumes, sunflowers, grain crops, and plants that provide natural insecticides in the same field.

2

perennials

plant that can live for more than 2 years.

3

annuals

plant that grows, sets seeds, and dies in one growing season.

4

industrialized agriculture (high-input agriculture)

uses large amounts of fossil fuel energy, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops (monocultures) or livestock animals for sale.

5

plantation agriculture

is a form of industrialized agriculture used primarily in tropical developing countries. Involves growing cash crops.

6

traditional subsistence agriculture

typically uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce only enough crops or livestock for a farm family's survival.

7

Tradition intensive agriculture

farmers increase their inputs of human and draft labor, fertilizer, and water to get a higher yield per area of cultivated land.

8

green revolution

popular term for introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain (rice, wheat, maize) that, with high enough inputs of fertilizer and water, can greatly increase crop yields.

9

second green revolution

involves introducing fast-growing dwarf varieties of rice and wheat into several developing countries in tropical and subtropical climates.

10

interplanting

many traditional farmers simultaneously grow several crops on the same plot.

11

polyvarietal cultivation

involves planting a plot with several varieties of the same crop.

12

intercropping

growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot.

13

agroforestry (alley cropping)

crops and trees are grown together

14

polyculture

many different plants maturing at various times are planted together.

15

land degradation

occurs when natural or human-induced processes decrease the future ability of land to support crops, livestock, or wild species.

16

soil erosion

the movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil from one place to another.

17

desertification

the productive potential of arid or semiarid land falls by 10% or more because of a combination of natural climate change that causes prolonged drought and human activities that reduce or degrade topsoil.

18

salinization

repeated annual applications of irrigation water lead to the gradual accumulation of salts in the upper soil layers.

19

waterlogging

saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation so that the water table rises close to the surface.

20

soil conservation

involves using ways to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility.

21

conventional-tillage farming

farmers plow the land and then break up and smooth the soil to make a planting surface.

22

conservation-tillage farming

farmers use it to disturb the soil as little as possible while planting crops.

23

terracing

can reduce soil erosion on steep slopes by converting the land into a series of broad, nearly level terraces that run across the land contour.

24

contour farming

involves plowing and planting crops in rows across the slope of the land rather than up and down

25

strip cropping

involves planting alternating strips of a row crop and another crop that completely covers the soil.

26

cover crops

the planting of crops such as alfalfa, clover, or rye immediately after harvest to help protect and hold the soil.

27

windbreaks (shelterbelts)

farms establish to reduce wind erosion, help retain soil moisture, supply wood for fuel, and provide habitats for birds, pest-eating and pollinating insects, and other animals.

28

organic fertilizer

organic material such as animal manure, green manure, and compost, applied to cropland as a source of plant nutrients.

29

commercial inorganic fertilizer

commercially prepared mixture of plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, and potassium applied to the soil to restore fertility and increase crop yields.

30

animal manure

the dung and urine of cattle, horses, poultry, and other farm animals.

31

green manure

consists of freshly cut or growing green vegetation plowed into the soil to increase the organic matter and humus available to the next crop.

32

compost

produced when micro-organisms in soil break down organic matter such as leaves, food wastes, paper, and wood in the presence of oxygen.

33

crop rotation

planting a field, or an area of a field, with different crops from year to year to reduce soil nutrient depletion.

34

chronic undernutrition

people who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs suffer.

35

malnutrition

faulty nutrition, caused by a diet that does not supply an individual with enough protein, essential fats, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients needed for good health.

36

overnutrition

occurs when food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes excess body fat.

37

third green revolution

or gene revolution, by using genetic engineering to develop genetically improved strains of crops and livestock animals.

38

genetic engineering

insertion of an alien gene into an organism to give it a beneficial genetic trait.

39

genetically modified food

is seen by its producers and investors as a potentially sustainable way to solve world food problems but critics consider it potential dangerous "Frankenfood"

40

rangelands

are grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that supply forage and vegetation for grazing and browsing animals.

41

overgrazing

occurs when too many animals graze too long and exceed the carrying capacity of a grassland area.

42

fisheries

concentrations of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water.

43

aquaculture

to raise marine and freshwater fish like livestock animals in feedlots in ponds and underwater cages and from inland freshwater fishing from lakes, rivers, reservoirs, and ponds.

44

trawler fishing

his used to catch fish and shellfish that live on or near the ocean floor.

45

bycatch

most of the fish and other aquatic species are thrown back into the ocean dead or dying.

46

purse-seine fishing

involves catching surface-dwelling species such as tuna, mackerel, anchovies, and herring, which tend to feed in schools near the surface or in shallow areas.

47

longlining

involves putting out lines up to 130 kilometers (80 miles) long, hung with thousands of baited hooks.

48

drift-net fishing

fish are caught by huge drifting nets that can hang as much as 15 meters (50 feet) below the surface and be up to 64 kilometers (40 miles) long.

49

overfishing

is the taking of so many fish that too little breeding stock is left to maintain numbers

50

fish farming

involves cultivating fish in a controlled environment and harvesting them when they reach the desired size.

51

fish ranching

involves holding anadromous species such as salmon that live part of their lives in fresh water and part in salt water in captivity for the first few years of their lives, usually in fenced-in areas or floating cages in coastal lagoons and estuaries.

52

sustainable (low-input agriculture, organic farming or agroecology)

uses technologies based on ecological knowledge to increase yields, control pests, and build soil fertility.