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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (36):
1

coral reefs

Formation produced by massive clones containing billions of tiny coral animals, that secret a stony substance (calcium carbonate) around themselves for protection. When the corals die, they empty outer skeletons form layers and cause the reef to grow. They are found in the coastal zones of warm tropical and subtropical oceans.

2

polyps

billions of tiny coral animals.

3

salinity

the amounts of various salts such as sodium chloride (NaCI) dissolved in a given volume of water.

4

phytoplankton

Small drifting plants, mostly algae and bacteria

5

zooplankton

Animal plankton. Small floating herbivores that feec on plant plankton (phytoplankton)

6

ultraplankton

Photosynthetic bacteria no more than 2 micrometers wide.

7

nekton

Strongly swimming organisms found in aquatic systems.

8

benthos

Bottom-dwelling organisms.

9

euphotic zone

Upper layer of a body of water through which sunlight can penetrate and support photosynthesis.

10

coastal zone

Warm, nutrient rich, shallow part of the ocean that extends from the high tide mark on land to the edge of a shelflike extension of continental land species to undergo various adaptations.

11

continental shelf

the submerged part of the continents

12

estuary

a partially enclosed area of coastal water where seawater mixes with freshwater and nutrients from rivers, streams, and runoff form land.

13

coastal wetlands

land areas covered with water all or part of the year.

14

mangrove forest

swamps found on the coastlines in warm tropical climates. are dominated by mangrove tress, and of about 55 species of trees and shrubs that can partly submerged in the salty environments of coastal swamps.

15

intertidal zone

The area of shoreline between low and high tides.

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seasonal wetlands

usually are underwater or soggy for only a short period of time each year.

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swamps

dominated by trees and shrubs

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inland wetlands

lands covered with fresh water all or part of the time (excluding lakes, reservoirs, and streams) and located away from coastal areas.

19

marshes

dominated bu grasses and reeds with a few trees.

20

runoff

freshwater from precipitation and melting ice that flows onto the earth's surface into nearby streams, lakes, wetland, and reservoirs.

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floodplain zone

streams join into wider and deeper rivers that meander across broad, flat valleys.

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watershed (drainage basin)

the land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream.

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olitotrophic lakes

a newly formed lake generally has a small supply of plant nutrients. (poorly nourished)

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eutrophic lakes

a lake with a large or excessive supply of nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) needed by producers. (well-nourished)

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surface water

precipitation that does not sink into the ground or evaporate.

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limnetic zone

2nd lake layer, the open sunlit water surface layer away from the shore that extends to the depth penetrated by sunlight.

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profundal zone

3rd lake layer, open water where it is too dark for photosynthesis.

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benthic zone

4th lake layer, mostly decomposers and detritus feeders and fish that swim from one zone to the other inhabit it.

29

freshwater life zones

occur where water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1% by volume accumulates on or flows through the surfaces of terrestrial biomes.

30

lakes

are large natural bodies of standing fresh water formed when precipitation, runoff, or groundwater seepage fill depressions in the earth's surface.

31

littoral zone

The top lake layer, consists of the shallow sunlight waters near the shore to the depth at which rooted plants stop growing, and it has a high biological diversity.

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euphotic zone

is the lighted upper zone where floating drifting phytoplankton carry out photosynthesis.

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bathyal zone

is the dimly lit middle zone that does not contain photosynthesizing producers because of lack of sunlight.

34

abyssal zone

is dark, and very cold and has little dissolved oxygen.

35

barrier islands

low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline.

36

open sea

the sharp increase in water depth at the edge of the continental shelf separates the coastal zone from the vast volume of the ocean.