Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (36):
Formation produced by massive clones containing billions of tiny coral animals, that secret a stony substance (calcium carbonate) around themselves for protection. When the corals die, they empty outer skeletons form layers and cause the reef to grow. They are found in the coastal zones of warm tropical and subtropical oceans.
billions of tiny coral animals.
the amounts of various salts such as sodium chloride (NaCI) dissolved in a given volume of water.
Small drifting plants, mostly algae and bacteria
Animal plankton. Small floating herbivores that feec on plant plankton (phytoplankton)
Photosynthetic bacteria no more than 2 micrometers wide.
Strongly swimming organisms found in aquatic systems.
Upper layer of a body of water through which sunlight can penetrate and support photosynthesis.
Warm, nutrient rich, shallow part of the ocean that extends from the high tide mark on land to the edge of a shelflike extension of continental land species to undergo various adaptations.
the submerged part of the continents
a partially enclosed area of coastal water where seawater mixes with freshwater and nutrients from rivers, streams, and runoff form land.
land areas covered with water all or part of the year.
swamps found on the coastlines in warm tropical climates. are dominated by mangrove tress, and of about 55 species of trees and shrubs that can partly submerged in the salty environments of coastal swamps.
The area of shoreline between low and high tides.
usually are underwater or soggy for only a short period of time each year.
dominated by trees and shrubs
lands covered with fresh water all or part of the time (excluding lakes, reservoirs, and streams) and located away from coastal areas.
dominated bu grasses and reeds with a few trees.
freshwater from precipitation and melting ice that flows onto the earth's surface into nearby streams, lakes, wetland, and reservoirs.
streams join into wider and deeper rivers that meander across broad, flat valleys.
watershed (drainage basin)
the land area that delivers runoff, sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream.
a newly formed lake generally has a small supply of plant nutrients. (poorly nourished)
a lake with a large or excessive supply of nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) needed by producers. (well-nourished)
precipitation that does not sink into the ground or evaporate.
2nd lake layer, the open sunlit water surface layer away from the shore that extends to the depth penetrated by sunlight.
3rd lake layer, open water where it is too dark for photosynthesis.
4th lake layer, mostly decomposers and detritus feeders and fish that swim from one zone to the other inhabit it.
freshwater life zones
occur where water with a dissolved salt concentration of less than 1% by volume accumulates on or flows through the surfaces of terrestrial biomes.
are large natural bodies of standing fresh water formed when precipitation, runoff, or groundwater seepage fill depressions in the earth's surface.
The top lake layer, consists of the shallow sunlight waters near the shore to the depth at which rooted plants stop growing, and it has a high biological diversity.
is the lighted upper zone where floating drifting phytoplankton carry out photosynthesis.
is the dimly lit middle zone that does not contain photosynthesizing producers because of lack of sunlight.
is dark, and very cold and has little dissolved oxygen.
low, narrow, sandy islands that form offshore from a coastline.