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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (19):


the study of the size, composition, and distribution of human populations and the causes and consequences of changes in these characteristics.


population change

an increase or decrease in the size of a population. It is equal to (Births + Immigration) - (Deaths + Emigration)


birth rate

same as crude birth rate


crude birth rate

annual number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year.


death rate

same as crude death rate


crude death rate

annual number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year.


doubling time

the time it takes (usually in years) for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double. it can be calculated by dividing the annual percentage growth rate into 70.


rule of 70

doubling time (in years) = 70/(percentage growth rate).



the number of individuals that occur to an individual women or in a population.


replacement-level fertility

number of children a couple must have yo replace them. the average number for a country or the world usually is slightly higher than 2 children per couple (2.1 in the United States and in 2.5 in some developing countries) because some children die before reaching their reproductive years.


total fertility rate

estimate of the average number of children who will be born alive to a women during her lifetime if she passes through all her childbearing years (ages 15-44) conforming to age-specific fertility rates of a given year. in simpler terms, it is an estimate of the average number of children a women will have during her childbearing years.


life expectancy

average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live.


infant mortality rate

number of babies out of every 1,000 born each year that die before their first birthday.


age structure

percentage of the population (or number of people of each sex) at each age level in a population.


demographic transition

hypothesis that countries, as they become industrialized, have declines in death rates followed by declines in birth rates.


preindustrial state

when there is little population growth because harsh living conditions leads to both a high birth rate (to compensate for high infant mortality) and a high death rate.


transitional state

when industrialization begins, food production rises, and health care improves. death rates drops and birth rates remain high, so the population grows rapidly


postindustrial state

when the birth rate declines further, equaling the death rate and reaching zero population growth.


family planning

providing information, clinical services, and contraceptives to help people choose the number and spacing of children they want to have.