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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (44):
1

Evolution

Chane in the genetic makeup of a population of a species in successive generations. If continued long enough, it can lead to the formation of a new species. Note theta populations-not individuals.

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Microevolution

The small genetic changes a population undergoes.

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Macroevolution

Long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes among groups of species.

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Gene pool

The sum total of all genes found in the individuals of the population of a particular species.

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Natural selection

Differential reproduction of individuals in the same population based on genetic differences among them. Process by which a particular beneficial gene (or set of genes) is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes. The result of natural selection is a population that contains a greater proportion of organisms better abated to certain environmental conditions.

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Differential reproduction

Phenomenon in which individuals with adaptive genetic traits produce more living offspring than do individuals without such traits.

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adaptation

Any genetically controlled structural, physiological, or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions. It usually results from a beneficial mutation.

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ecological niche

Total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem. It includes all physical, chemical, and biological conditions a species needs to live and reproduce in an ecosystem.

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habitat

Place or type of place where an organism or population of organisms lives.

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fundamental niche

The full potential range of the physical, chemical , and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species.

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evolutionary divergence/divergent evolution

Members of isolated populations of a sexually reproducing species may become so different in genetic makeup that when they are together again they coannot produce live, fertile offspring. Then one speices becomes two and speciation has occurred.

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geographic isolation

Separation of populations of a species for long times into different areas.

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reproductive isolation

Long-term geographic separation of members of a particular sexually reproducing species.

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extinction

Complete disappearance of a species from the earth. This happens when a species cannot adapt and successfully reproduce under new environmental conditions or when it evolves into one or more new species.

15

genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Organism whose genetic makeup has been modified by genetic engineering

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traditional crossbreeding

involves mixing the genes of similar types of organisms through breeding.

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biopharming

Use of genetically engineered animals to act as biofactories for producing drugs, vaccines, antibodies, hormones, industrial chemicals such as plastics and detergents, and human body organs.

18

Light year

distance that light travels in one year + is 6 trillion miles

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Prokaryotic kingdoms

Single celled organisms, have no internal structures, nucleus, or membrane that surrounds the structures.

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Moncra

Bacteria and cynobacteria

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Eukaryotic kingdoms

Organisms with a membrane that contains a nucleus inside.

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Protista

Mostly one celled organisms have characteristics of all 3 eukaryotic kingdoms

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Fungi

Organisms that decompose stuff

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Plantae

Organisms that make their own food using photosynthesis

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Annuals

Complete life cycle in one year

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Perennial

live for more than one season

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Animalia

organisms must get organic compounds form the food they eat most are able to move

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Invertebrates

no backbone ex: jellyfish

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Vertebrates

Fish, birds, humans

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Evolutionary bush

One life form splits into two and those branches split (independently)

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Adaptive Radiation

when one species splits into many species to fill open habitats

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Speciation

one species can evolve into two or more species.

33

Punctuated equilibrium

evolution occurs in long periods of no change and short periods of a lot of change.

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Mutation

fundamental origin of all genetic (DNA) change.

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Genetic Drift

isolated populations accumulate different mutations over time.

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Founder effect

Sampling bias during immigration. when a new population is formed, its genetic composition depends largely on the gene frequencies within the group of first settlers.

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Stabilizing selection

Acts upon extremes (gone) and favors the intermediate.

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Directional selection

Favors variants of one extreme

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Diversifying selection

Favors variants of opposite.

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Biogeography

Geographical distribution of a species.

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Fossil Record

Fossi;s and the order in which they appear in layers of sedimentary rock (strongest evidence)

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Taxonomy

Classification of life forms

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Homologous Structures

Structures that are similar because of common ancestry (comparative anatomy) `

44

Comparative Embryology

Study of structures that appear during embryonic development.