Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (44):
Chane in the genetic makeup of a population of a species in successive generations. If continued long enough, it can lead to the formation of a new species. Note theta populations-not individuals.
The small genetic changes a population undergoes.
Long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes among groups of species.
The sum total of all genes found in the individuals of the population of a particular species.
Differential reproduction of individuals in the same population based on genetic differences among them. Process by which a particular beneficial gene (or set of genes) is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes. The result of natural selection is a population that contains a greater proportion of organisms better abated to certain environmental conditions.
Phenomenon in which individuals with adaptive genetic traits produce more living offspring than do individuals without such traits.
Any genetically controlled structural, physiological, or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions. It usually results from a beneficial mutation.
Total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem. It includes all physical, chemical, and biological conditions a species needs to live and reproduce in an ecosystem.
Place or type of place where an organism or population of organisms lives.
The full potential range of the physical, chemical , and biological factors a species can use if there is no competition from other species.
evolutionary divergence/divergent evolution
Members of isolated populations of a sexually reproducing species may become so different in genetic makeup that when they are together again they coannot produce live, fertile offspring. Then one speices becomes two and speciation has occurred.
Separation of populations of a species for long times into different areas.
Long-term geographic separation of members of a particular sexually reproducing species.
Complete disappearance of a species from the earth. This happens when a species cannot adapt and successfully reproduce under new environmental conditions or when it evolves into one or more new species.
genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
Organism whose genetic makeup has been modified by genetic engineering
involves mixing the genes of similar types of organisms through breeding.
Use of genetically engineered animals to act as biofactories for producing drugs, vaccines, antibodies, hormones, industrial chemicals such as plastics and detergents, and human body organs.
distance that light travels in one year + is 6 trillion miles
Single celled organisms, have no internal structures, nucleus, or membrane that surrounds the structures.
Bacteria and cynobacteria
Organisms with a membrane that contains a nucleus inside.
Mostly one celled organisms have characteristics of all 3 eukaryotic kingdoms
Organisms that decompose stuff
Organisms that make their own food using photosynthesis
Complete life cycle in one year
live for more than one season
organisms must get organic compounds form the food they eat most are able to move
no backbone ex: jellyfish
Fish, birds, humans
One life form splits into two and those branches split (independently)
when one species splits into many species to fill open habitats
one species can evolve into two or more species.
evolution occurs in long periods of no change and short periods of a lot of change.
fundamental origin of all genetic (DNA) change.
isolated populations accumulate different mutations over time.
Sampling bias during immigration. when a new population is formed, its genetic composition depends largely on the gene frequencies within the group of first settlers.
Acts upon extremes (gone) and favors the intermediate.
Favors variants of one extreme
Favors variants of opposite.
Geographical distribution of a species.
Fossi;s and the order in which they appear in layers of sedimentary rock (strongest evidence)
Classification of life forms
Structures that are similar because of common ancestry (comparative anatomy) `