chapter 6 - additional suffixes and digestive system terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 6 - additional suffixes and digestive system terms Deck (36):
0

-ectasis , -ectasia

stretching, dilation, dilatation, widening

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-emesis

vomiting

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-lysis

destruction, breakdown, separation

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-pepsia

digestion

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-phagia

eating, swallowing

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-phasia

speech

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-plasia

formation

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-plasty

surgical repair

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-ptosis

drooping, sagging, protruding

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-ptysis

spitting

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-rrhage, -rrhagia

bursting forth (of blood)

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-rrhaphy

suture

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-rrhea

flow, discharge

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-spasm

involuntary contraction of muscles

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-stasis

stopping, controlling

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-stenosis

tightening, stricture, narrowing

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hemoptysis

spitting up blood from the resp tract . a sign of bleeding and disease within the bronchial tubes and lungs

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hematemesis

vomiting blood, a sign of bleeding from the upper GI tract

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-tresia

opening

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liver function tests (LFT's) - test for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in the blood

ALT (alanine transaminase)
AST (aspartate transaminase)
Alkaline phosphatase (alk phos)
Serum bilirubin
Direct/Indirect bilirubin test

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stool culture

test for microorganisms present in feces

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stool guaiac test or Hemoccult test

test to detect occult (hidden) blood in feces
important screening test for colon cancer

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many of the x-ray tests listed here use a ______ medium (substance that x-rays cannot penetrate) to visualize a specific area of the digestive system

contrast medium .
the contrast, bc of its increased density relative to body tissue, allows organs and parts to be distinguished from one another on the film or screen

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lower GI series (barium enema)

X-ray images of the colon and the rectum obtained after injection of barium into the rectum

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upper GI series

X-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth.
after the upper GI series, a small bowel follow through study shows sequential x-ray pics of the sm intestine as barium passes through. a barium swallow is a study of the esophagus

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cholangiography

x-ray exam of the biliary system performed after injection of contrast into the bile ducts.
in percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, contrast is injected via a needle placed through the abdominal wall into the liver.
in ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), contrast medium is administered through an oral catheter (tube) and then passes through esoph, stomach, and duodenum into bile ducts. helps Dx problems involving bile ducts, gall bladder, and pancreas

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computed tomography (CT)

a series of X-ray images are taken in multiple views, esp in cross section... based on differences in tissue densities.
contrast material helps highlight differences in blood flow between normal and deceased tissues

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abdominal ultrasonography

sound waves beamed into the abdomen produce an image of abdominal viscera.
*ultrasonography is esp useful for examination of fluid-filled structures such as the gallbladder

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endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)

use of an endoscope combined with ultrasound to examine the organs of the GI tract

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magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

magnetic waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three places of the body. detects subtle differences in tissue composition, water content, BV density, and can show sites of trauma, infection, or cancer

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gastric bypass or bariatric surgery

reducing the size of the stomach to size of two tablespoons and bypasses much of the small intestine .....and diverting food to the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy).

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gastrointestinal endoscopy

visual examination of GI tract using endoscope . . flexible fiberoptic tube through the mouth or the anus to view the parts of the GI tract. Examples: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, proctoscopy, and anoscopy.
virtual colonoscopy (CT colonoscopy) combines CT scanning and computer technology to examine entire length of the colon by x-ray imaging in minutes.

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laparoscopy

visual (endoscopic) exam of the abdomen with a laparoscope inserted through small incisions in the abdomen

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liver biopsy

removal of liver tissue for microscopic examination . . avg sample is less than an inch long

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nasogastric intubation

insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach . . used to remove fluid post-op and to obtain gastric/intestinal contents for analysis

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paracentesis (abdominocentesis)

surgical procedure to remove fluid from the abdomen
(drains fluid, accumulated in ascites) from the peritoneal cavity