Chapter 6: Drug Classifications Flashcards Preview

Paramedic Lecture: 1rst Semester > Chapter 6: Drug Classifications > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6: Drug Classifications Deck (70):
1

Prototype

Drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics.

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Analgesic

Medication that relieves the sensation of pain

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Analgesia

The absence of the sensation of pain

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Anesthesia

The absence of all sensation

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Adjunct medication

Agent that enhances the effects of other drugs.

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Opioid Agonist

Prototype- Morphine
Effectively treats pain
Decreases the sensory neurons' ability to propagate pain impulses the the spinal cord and brain.

7

Non-opioid Analgesics

Affect the production of prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase, important neurotransmitters involved in the pain response.

8

Opioid Antagonists

Prototype- Naloxone (Narcan)
Competitively binds with opioid receptors.

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Adjunct Medications

Given to enhance the effects of other drugs.

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Opioid Agonist-Antagonists

Prototype- Pentazocine (Talwin)
Decreases pain response and has fewer respiratory depressants and addictive side effects that morphine.

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Anesthetic

Medication that induces a loss of sensation to touch or pain.

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Neuroleptanesthesia

Anesthesia that combines decreased sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious.

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Sedation

State of decreased anxiety and inhibitions.

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Hypnosis

Instigation of sleep.

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Central nervous system stimulant
Methylxanthines

Prototype- Caffeine
Seems to block adenosine receptors.

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Psychotherapeutic Medication

Treats mental disfunction

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Neuroleptic

Antipsychotic medications

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Extrapyramidal symptoms

Common side effect of antipsychotic medications, including muscle tremors, and parkinsonism-like effects

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Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA)

Prototype- Imipramine (Tofranil)
Treats Depression
Blockin the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, the extending the duration of their actions.

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Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

Prototype-Fluoxetine (Prozac)
Antidepressant
Comparable with TCA but don't effect dopamine or norepinephrine and don't block histaminic or cholinergic receptors, and thus avoid negative side effects of TCAs.

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Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

Prototype-Phenelzine (Nardil)
Treat depression refractory to TCA's and SSRIs.

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Parkinsons Disease
Anticholinergic

Prototype- Benztropine (Cogentin)
Block Acetylcholine receptors

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Cholinergics

Prototype- Bethanechol (Urecholine)
Simulate the effects of ACh by directly binding with the cholinergic receptors.
SLUDGE
Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation
Gastric Motility
Emesis

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Anticholinergics

Prototype- Atropine
Block muscarinic receptors
Atropine Overdose Effects-
Hot as hell
Blind as a bat
Dry as a bone
Red a a beet
Mad as a hatter

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Ganglionic Blocking Agents

Competitive antagonism with acetylcholine at the nicotinic n receptors in the atomic ganglia.

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Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

Prototype- Tubocurarine
Succinylcholine most commonly used
Paralytic
Produces a neuromuscular blockade by binding with the nicotinic m receptors.

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Alpha 1

Arteriole Constriction
Vein Constriction
Mydriasis (dilation) of eye
Ejaculation

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Alpha 2

Presynaptic terminals inhibition

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Beta 1

Increased heart rate
Increased heart conductivity
Increased automaticity of heart
Increased contractility of heart
Renin release in kidney

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Beta 2

Bronchodilation- Lungs
Dilation- arterioles
Inhibition of contractions- uterus
Tremors- skeletal muscle

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Beta 3

Lipolysis of adipose tissue- fat stores
Thermogenesis- skeletal muscle

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Dopanminergic

Vasodilation (increased blood flow)- kidney

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Adrenergic Receptor Specificity
Norepinephrine

Alpha 1,

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Adrenergic Receptor Specificity
Epinephrine

Alpha 1, 2, Beta 1,2

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Adrenergic Receptor Specificity
Dobutamine

Beta 1

36

Adrenergic Receptor Specificity
Dopamine

Beta 1, Dopaminergic

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Noncompetitrive long-acting alpha antagonist

Prototype- Phenoxybenzamin (Dibenzyline)

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Competitve short-acting antagonist

Prototype- Prazosin (Minipress)

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Alph-adrenergic antagonis

Prototype- Prazosin

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Skeletal Muscle Relaxant

Prototype- Dantrolene (Dantrium)
Decreases the release of calcium

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Sodium Channel Blockers

Prototype- Quinidine
Treate Atrial fibrillation and has anticholinergic properties.

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Beta blockers Class II

Prototype- Propranolol
Blocks the effect of B2 receptors

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Potassium Channel Blockers (Class III)

Protoype- Bretylium
By block efflux of potassium, bretylium prolongs depolarization and the effective refractory period.

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Calcium Channel Blocker (Clas IV)

Prototype- Verapamil

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Loop Diuretics

Prototype- Hydrochlorothizaide
Profoundly affect circulating blood volume-decrease blood volume- primary tool in treating left ventricular heart failure.

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Beta Adrenergic Antagonist

Prototype- Metropolol (Lopressor)

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Centrally Acting Adrenergic Inhibitors

Prototype- Clonidine (Catapres)
Decrease heart rate and contractility

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Peripheral Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Agents

Prototype- Reserpine (Serpalan)
Decreases synthesis of norepinephrine
Exposes destroys norepinephrine

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Alpha 1 Antagonist

Prototype- Prazosin (Minipress)
Decreases blood pressure by competitively blocking the alpha 1 receptors

50

Angiotensin-Convertin Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors

Prototype- Captopril (Capoten)
Causes both systemic and local vasoconstriction
Managing renal and heart failure

51

Calcium Channel Blocking Agents

Prototype Dihydropyridine- nifedipine (Procardia, Adalat)
Drops blood pressure

52

Direct Vasodilators

Prototype- Hydralazine (Apresoline)
Decreasing peripheral vascular resistance and after load and thus lowering blood pressure

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Cardiac Glycosides

Prototype-Digonxin
For Heart failure and some types of dysrhythmias
Increasing myocardial contractility and cardiac output.

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Antiplatelets

Prototype-Asprin
Decrease the formation of platelet plugs.

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Anticoagulants

Prototype-Heparin
Enhance antithrombin III's ability to inhibit the clotting cascade

56

Fibrinolytics

Prototype- Streptokinase (Streptokinase)
Acts directly on thrombi to break them down; also call thrombolytic.

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Antihyperlipidemic

Prototype- Lovastatin
Used to treat high blood cholesterol

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Beta 2 Specific Agents

Prototype- Albuterol
Relax bronchial smooth muscle which results in bronchodilation and relief from bronchospasm.

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Methylzanthines

Prototype- Theophyllin
Bronchodilation

60

Anticholinergics

Constriction of bronchial smooth muscle

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Glucocorticoids

Prototype- Beclomethasone
Lower release of inflammatory substances

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Leukotriene Antagonists

Prototype- Zileuton
Treats asthma

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H2 Receptor Antagonists

Prototype- Cimetidine
Inhibits gastric acid secretion and helps return balance between protective and aggressive factors.

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Stimulant Laxatives

Prototype- Phenolphthalein
Increases water secretion and decrease its absorption.

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Osmotic laxatives

Prototype- Magnesium hydroxide
Increase the feces' osmotic pull

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Serotonin Antagonists

Prototype- Ondansetron (Zofran)
treatment of nausea

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Dopamine Antagonist

Block dopamine receptors.

68

Drugs affecting the parathyroid and thyroid glands

Prototype- Levothyroxin (Synthroid)
Thyroid Hormone replacemnt

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Antifungal and Antiviral Agents

Prototype- Ketoconazole (Nizoral)

70

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

used as analgesics and antipyretics (fever reducers)