Chapter 6 (test 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 (test 2) Deck (79):
1

dermatology

study and medical treatment of the integumentary system

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exfoliate

the removal of dead skin cells (keratinocytes)

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callus/corns

thick accumulation of dead keratinocytes on hands or feet

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dander

dead cells on the scalp

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dandruff

clumps stuck together of dander

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dermal papillae

upward fingerlike extensions of dermis
-only source of nutrition for the hair

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stretch marks

tears in collagen fibers caused by the stretching of skin
- occurs in the reticular layer of the dermis

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hemoglobin

part of the blood that carries oxygen

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carotene

yellow pigment from egg yolks and yellow/orange veggies

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friction ridges

finger prints

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freckles

flat, melanized patches

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moles

elevated melanized patches often with hair

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pilus

another name for hair
-pili (plural)

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hair

slender filament of keratinized cells growing from an oblique tube in the skin (hair follicle)

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hair follicle

oblique tube in the skin

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hair receptors

nerve fibers in hair follicle

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aloplecia

thinning of hair or baldness

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pattern baldness

condition when hair loss occurs from specific regions of the scalp

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bromhidrosis

disagreeable body odor produced by bacterial action on fatty acid

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acid mantle

inhibits bacterial growth

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insensible perspiration

no visible wetness of skin

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diaphoresis

sweating with wetness of skin

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holocrine gland

secretion of broken down cells
-mitosis replaces at base of gland

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eschar

burned dead tissue
-toxic if not removed from skin

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components of integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, cutaneous gland

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layers

epidermis and dermis

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epidermis

top layer of skin
*5 types of cells
-stem cells
-keratinocytes
-melanocytes
-tactile(merkel) cells
-dendritic(langerhans) cells

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layers of epidermis

stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale

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stratum corneum

up to 30 layers
surface cells flake off
resists abrasion, penetration and water loss

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stratum lucidum

only in thick skin
thin translucent zone(dead cells)
cells with no nucleus or other organelles

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stratum granulosum

3-5 layers of flat cells
dark staining coarse

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stratum spinosum

several layers of cells
deepest layer is capable of mitosis
keratin filaments=flattens cell

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stratum basale

1 layer stem cells and keratinocytes on basement membrane
-melanocyte and tactile cells also present
-replaces lost epidermal cells

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thick skin

location: palms, soles, fingers and toes
thick layer
sweat glands present

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thin skin

location: everywhere but hands and feet
thin layer
sweat glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands present

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life of a keratinocyte

-start from stem cels in the stratum basale
-mitosis occurs until cells migrate 2-3 cells away from the dermis
-new keratinocytes push the older ones upward until they make it to the skins surface and flake off after 30-40 days
-in stratum granulosum 3 things happen
*they die
*keratohyalin granules release filaggrin
*cells are water-proofed
-cells above water barrier die quickly and are exfoliated

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dermis

connective tissue layer
-contains blood vessels, sweat glands (merocrine and apocrine), sebaceous gland, and nerve endings
-also the hair follicles and nail roots
*dermal papillae is the border between the epidermis and the dermis top
Top layer- papillary layer: areolar tissue
-rich in small blood vessels
Bottom Layer- reticular layer: dense, irregular connective tissue

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hypodermis

layer underneath the skin
-areolar and adipose tissue
-pads the body
-binds skin to the underlying tissues
subQ fat: energy reservoir and thermal insulation

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skin function

resistant to trauma and infection
-keratin and acid mantle
-waterproof
-barrier against UV radiation and harmful chemicals
-vitamin D systhesis
-sensation
-thermoregulation
-nonverbal communication
-transdermal absorption

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Dark skin

synthesizes more melanin
melanin granules are spread out more
melanin degrades slower
melanized cells seen throughout epidermis
-darker the skin: higher levels of eumelanin

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light skin

melanin clumped near keratinocyte nucleus
melanin degrades rapidly
little seen beyond stratum basale
-lighter the skin: high levels of pheomelanin

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colors of diagnostic value

cyanosis-blueness of skin from oxygen deprivation
pallor-pale or ashen color when there is little blood flow through the skin
hematoma(bruise)- mass of clotted blood showing through the skin
albinism- genetic lack of melanin resulting in white hair, pale skin and pink eyes
jaundice- yellowing of skin and sclera due to excess of bilirubin in blood
erythema-abnormal redness of skin due to dilated cutaneous vessels

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UV radiation

adverse effects:
-skin cancer
-degrades folic acid, needed for normal cell devision, fertility and fetal development
desirable:
-stimulates synthesis of vitamin D

44

structure of the hair

bulb, root, shaft, follicle(dermal papilla, hair matrix, epithelial root sheath and connective root sheath)

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Bulb

swelling at base where hair originates
-living cells are only in or near this area

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root

remainder of hair in follicle

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shaft

portion above skin surface

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hair matrix

region of mitotically active cells directly above papilla
-hairs growth center

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epithelial root sheath

extension of epidermis
next to hair root
bulge: source of stem cells for follicle growth

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connective tissue root sheath

from dermis
surrounds epithelial root sheath

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layers of hair

medulla: core with loosely arranged cells and air space
cortex:most of hair; several layers of keratinized cells
cuticle: multiple layers of thin scaly cells overlapping

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hair cycle

Anagen, catagen, telogen

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anagen

growth stage
-stem cells multiply
-push dermal papilla deeper--> forms epidermal root sheath
-cells directly above dermal papilla=hair matrix
*becomes hair cells, make keratin and die as pushed up
-new hair grows up follicle, often among old club hair

54

catagen

degenerative stage, mitosis stops and sheath cells below bulge die
-follicle shrinks and dermal papilla moves up to bulge
-base of hair keratinizes-->hard club-- club hair
*loses its anchorage
*easy to pull out by brushing

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telogen

resting stage, when papilla reaches bulge

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hair function

trunk and limb:vestigial
hair receptors: alert us
scalp: retain heat and protects against sunburn
pubic and axillary hair: signifies sexual maturity, aid in transmission of sexual scents
eyelashes and eyebrows: nonverbal communication

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structure of the nails

very thin, dead cells and hard keratin
-nail plate
*free edge
*nail body
*nail root
-nail fold
-nail groove
-nail bed
-nail matrix
-lunule
-eponychium (cuticle)

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nail plate

hard part of nail

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free edge

overhangs fingertip

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nail body

visible attached part

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nail root

extends under skin

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nail fold

surrounding skin above nail

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nail groove

separates nail fold and nail plate

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nail bed

skin under the nail plate

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nail matrix

growth zone, thickened stratum basale
-mitosis=nail growth

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lunule

opaque white cresent

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eponychium

cuticle
-narrow zone of dead skin

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glands

merocrine
apocrine
sebaceous
ceruminous
mammmary

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Merocrine (eccrine)

function: secretes watery sweat that cools the body
open to: the skin surface
location: entire body

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apocrine

function: produce thick, milky sweat with fatty acids
opens to: ducts go to hair follicles
location: groin, anal region, axilla, areola, bearded area

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sebaceous glands

sebum: oily secretion made
flask shaped glands opening into hair follicle
keeps hair and skin from becoming dry, brittle and cracked

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ceruminous glands

only in external ear canal
secretion+sebum+dead epithelial cells=ear wax
-keeps eardrum pliable
-waterproofs canal
-kills bacteria
-makes guard hairs sticky=blocks foreign particles
coiled tubular glands open to skin surface

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mammary glands

milk producing glands develop only during pregnancy and lactation
-modified apocrine sweat gland
-richer secretion opens into nipple

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sweat

begins protein-free filtrate of blood plasma
-K, urea, lactic acid, ammonia, some salt
-some drugs excreted in sweat
-99% water with a pH of 4-6
*acid mantle: inhibit bacterial growth

75

skin cancer

induced by UV rays (easiest to treat, highest survival rates in caught early and most common)
-basal cell carcinoma
-squamous cell carcinoma
-malignant melanoma

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burns

damage done to the skin due to UVA and UVB rays
-1st, 2nd, 3rd degree
-leading cause of accidental death due to fluid loss, infection and toxic effects of eschar

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1st degree burn

partial-thickness burn; only epidermis
-most sunburns

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2nd degree burn

partial-thickness burn; epidermis and part of dermis
-blistered and painful
-leaves part of dermis intact

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3rd degree burn

full thickness burn; skin and often deeper tissues destroyed
-requires skin graft
-needs fluid replacement and infection control