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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (38):
1

anatomy

examining the structure of the human body

2

physiology

the functions of the human body

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inspection

visual observation of the body in the course of a medical examination

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palpation

physical examination in medical diagnosis by pressure of the hand or fingers to the surface of the body specifically to determine the condition of an underlying part or organ

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auscultation

act of listening to sounds arising within organs as an aid to diagnosis and treatment

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percussion

the act or technique of tapping the surface of a body part to learn the condition of the parts beneath by the resulting sound

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comparative anatomy

study more than one species to examine structural similarities and differences, and analyze evolutionary trends

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exploratory surgery

opening the body and looking inside

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medical imaging

viewing inside of the body with out surgery

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gross anatomy

what can be seen with the naked eye

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comparative physiology

studying different species to learn about bodily functions
***basis for development of new drugs and medical procedures

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hypothesis

educated speculation or possible answer

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falsifiability

if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong

14

sample size

number of subjects used in a study

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control

control group and treatment group
**comparison of treated and untreated individuals

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psychosomatic effects

effects of subjects state of mind on his or her physiology
**use of a placebo

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placebo

"sugar pill"
fake treatment

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experimenter bias

the experimenter may be swayed one way or the other due to any possible bias

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double-blind study

neither the experimenter nor the subjects of a study know details about the experimental components

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statistical testing

provides statements of probability
different between control and test subjects was not random variation
results due to variable being tested

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peer review

critical evaluation by other experts in a field
**ensures honesty, objectivity, and quality in science

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scientific fact

info that can be independently verified by a trained person

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law of nature

generalizations about the predictable way matter and energy behave
**results from inductive reasoning and repeated observation
**written as verbal statements or mathematical formulae

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theory

an explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses
**summarizes what we know
**suggests direction for further study

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evolution

change in genetic composition of population of organisms
EX: development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and appearance of new strains of AIDS virus

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natural selection

some individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their competition
**disease resistance
**ability to attract mates

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selection pressures

natural F that promote reproductive success of some individuals more than others

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adaptaions

features of an organism's anatomy, physiology, or behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable organism to cope with challenges of its environment

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model

animal species selected for research on particular problem

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vestigial organs

remnants of organs that apparently were better developed and more functional in ancestors of a species, and now serve little or no purpose

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Organization

living things exhibit a higher level of organization that nonliving world around them

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cellular composition

living matter is always compartmentalized into more than one cells

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Metabolism

sum of all internal chemical change

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responsiveness

sense and react to stimuli

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homeostasis

maintaining relatively stable internal conditions

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development

differentiation and growth

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reproduction

producing copies of themselves
**pass genes to offspring

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Mutations

a relatively permanent change in hereditary material involving either a physical or biochemical change