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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (48):
1

Element

simplest form of matter with its own unique chemical properties
**one or two letter symbols

2

atomic number

number of protons in the nucleus

3

minerals

inorganic elements taken from soil by plants and passed up the food chain
** structure and enzymes

4

Nucleus

protons and neutrons

5

protons

+1 charge
mass=1 amu(atomic mass unit)

6

neutrons

no charge
mass=1 amu (atomic mass unit)

7

atomic mass

approximately=protons + neutron

8

electrons

-1 charge
little to no mass
number of electrons=number of protons

9

valence electrons

outer most shell
chemical bonding properties of an atom

10

isotopes

radioisotopes-unstable isotopes that give off radiation
** every element has at least one radioisotope

11

molecules

chemical particles composed of two or more atoms untied by chemical bonds

12

compounds

molecules composed of two or more different elements

13

molecular formula

identifies elements and how many of each are present

14

nonpolar covalent bond

strongest of all bonds
electrons shared equally

15

polar covalent bonds

strongest of all bonds
electrons shared unequally

16

hydrogen bond

weak attraction between slightly + and slightly - charged ions
**very important
-protein structure
-DNA structure
Individually weak but collectively strong

17

Van der Waals forces

weak, brief attraction between neutral atoms
**changes in electron density causes polarity

18

hydrophilic

substances dissolve in water

19

hydrophobic

substances do not dissolve in water

20

adhesion

tendency of one subject to cling to another

21

cohesions

tendency of like molecules to cling to each other

22

chemical reactivity

the ability to participate in chemical reactions

23

solute

particles of matter in a solution
** can be: gas, liquid, solid

24

solvent

the more abundant substance in a solution (usually water)

25

energy

capacity to do work

26

chemical energy

potential energy stored in molecular bonds

27

heat

kinetic energy of molecular movement

28

chemical reaction

process in which covalent or ionic bond is formed or broken

29

catabolism

energy releasing decomposition reactions
*breaks covalent bonds
*smaller molecules
*releases useful energy

30

anabolism

energy storing synthesis reactions
*requires energy input
*protein or fat
*driven by energy from catabolism

31

macromolecules

very large organic molecules
**very high molecular weights
-protein, DNA

32

monomers

identical or similar subunits

33

conformation

3D shape of protein crucial to function
**able to reversibly change
-enzyme function, muscle contraction

34

Denaturation

extreme conformational change destroying function

35

chemical bonds

forces holding molecules together
forces attracting one molecule to another

36

mixtures

consists of substances physically blended, not chemically combined

37

solvency

the ability to dissolve other chemicals

38

heat capacity

the amount of heat required to increase temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree C

39

potential energy

energy contained in an object because of its position or state

40

kinetic energy

energy of motion

41

chemical reactions

process in which covalent/ ionic bond is formed or destroyed

42

decomposition reaction

breakdown of one larger molecule into 2+ smaller ones
ab=a+b

43

synthesis reactions

2+ smaller molecules form a larger one
a+b=ab

44

exchange reactions

2 molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms
ab+cd=abcd=ac+bd

45

law of mass action

equations reads from side with a greater quantity of molecules to the one with less

46

q10 effect

for every 10 degrees C increase the reaction rate doubles

47

polymers

molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits(monomer)

48

isomer

compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas