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Flashcards in Chapter 8 (test 2) Deck (54):
1

axial skeleton

skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs, and hyoid

2

appendicular skeleton

pectoral girdle, upper limbs, hip bones and lower limbs

3

Number of bones and variations

Birth: 270
Adult: 206
Variation:
-sesamoid bones develop in tendons
- sutural bones

4

Sinuses

Paranasal Sinuses are the ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary, and fontal
-mucous membrane lining and air filled
-lighten anterior portion of skull
-adds resonance to the voice

5

Cranial Bones and the cranium

Cranium protects the brain and associated sense organs
- meninges separate the brain from direct contact with the bones
8 cranial bones
-1 frontal
-2 parietal
-2 temporal
-1 occipital
-1 sphenoid
-1 ethmoid

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sutures

lines running between the cranial bones where they connect

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foramina

holes for nerves and blood vessels

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Facial Bones

-support teeth
-gives shape and individuality to face
-form point of orbital and nasal cavities
-attachments for muscles of facial expression and mastication
14 bones
-2 maxillae
-2 palatine bones
-2 zygomatic bones
-2 lacrimal bones
-2 nasal bones
-2 inferior nasal conchae
-1 vomer
-1 mandible

9

Bones associated with the skull

auditory ossicles
- 3 inner ear bones: malleus, stapes, and incus
hyoid bone
-supports the tongue

10

frontal bone

forehead and part of roof of cranium
-coronal suture: connects frontal bone to parietal bones
-supraorbital margin and supraorbital foramen
-contains frontal sinus

11

Parietal Bones

most of cranial roof and part of its lateral walls
-bordered by all four sutures
-sagittal: between the parietal bones
-coronal: between the frontal and parietal bones
-lambdoid: between the parietal and occipital bone
-squamous: between the temporal and parietal
2 temporal lines= attachment of temporalis muscle

12

Temporal Bones

Lateral wall and part of floor of cranial cavity
-zygomatic process
-mandibular fossa
-external auditory meatus
-internal auditory meatus: opening for vestibulocochlear nerve
-masstiod process and mastiod notch

13

Occipital Bone

Rear and base of skull
-foramen magnum- opening for the spinal cord
-skull rests on occipital condyles
-external occipital protuberance for nuchal ligament

14

Sphenoid bone

Optic foramen
sella turcica: houses pituitary gland
sphenoid sinus
-butterfly shaped bone touching the occipital and temporal bones

15

ethmoid Bone

located between the eyes
-perpendicular plate: superior 2/3 of nasal septum
Cribriform (olfactory) foramina
labyrinth with ethmoidal cells=ethmoid sinus
superior and middle nasal conchae: create turbulent airflow

16

Maxilla

Intermaxillary suture
aveolar processes: bony points between teeth
alveolus: sockets holding teeth
palate: allows chewing while breathing
-palatine process
maxillary process

17

palatine bones

l-shaped bones
-horizontal plate
-perpendicular plate
posterior portion of hard palate

18

Zygomatic Bones

forms angles of cheek bones and part of lateral orbital wall
-zygomatic arch: from temporal process of zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal bone

19

Lacrimal Bones

froms part of medial wall of each orbit
smallest bones of the skull
lacrimal fossa with lacrimal sac
-tears collect in lacrimal sac--> nasal cavity
located behind the eyes

20

Nasal Bones

bridge of nose
supports cartilages shaping lower portion of nose
often fractured by blow to nose

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Inferior Nasal Conchae

3 conchae in nasal cavity
-superior and middle: part of ethmoid bone
Inferior nasal concha: a separate bone

22

Vomer

Inferior 1/2 of nasal septum
supports cartilage forming anterior part of nasal septum

23

Mandible

strongest bone of skull
-supports lower teeth
alveo;ar processes
mental foramen
mandibular condyle and TMJ
mandibular foramen

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Functions of the vertebral column

-supports skull and trunk
-allows for their movement
-protects the spinal cord
-absorbs stress of walking, running, and lifting
-provides attachments for limbs, thoracic cage, and postural muscles

25

Vertebral Column

33 vertebrae all together
5 groups
-7 cervical in neck
-12 throracic in chest
-5 lumbar in neck
-5 fused sacral
-4 fused coccygeal

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Vertebral Curvatures

1 curve at birth
as an adult 4 normal curvatures
-cervical (at birth)
-thoracic (by the time a kid can sit)
-lumbar (by the time a kid can walk)
-pelvic

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Vertebra

Body
-mass of spongy bone contains red bone marrow
-covered with thin shell of compact bone
-Function: weight bearing portion
vertebral foramina: vertebral canal for spinal cord
vertebral arch
-pedicle: pillarlike
-lamina: platelike
spinous process
-from apex of arch
transverse process
superior articular processes
-meets inferior articular processes
Facets
-flat articular surfaces covered with hyaline cartilage
Intervertebral foramen
-opening between 2 vertebrae
-for spinal nerves

28

Intervertebral Discs

1st between C2 and C3
last between L5 and sacrum
2 parts
-nucleus pulposus: inner gelatinous mass
-anulus fibrosus: outer ring of fibrocartilage
binds the vertebrae together
bupports body weight
absorbs shock

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C1 or Atlas

supports the head
no body
superior articular facets
-nodding motion
atlanto-occipital joint: between atlas and occipital bone(cranium)
inferiorarticular facets

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C2 or Axis

allows for the rotation of the head
dens/odontoid process
-vertebral foramen of atlas
-transverse ligament
Atlantoaxial joint: between the atlas and axis

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cervical vertebrae

bifid or forked spinous processes C2-C6
small body and larger vertebral foramen
transverse foramen in transverse process
-passage and prtection of vertebral arteries and veins
-only in cervical vertebrae
C7 vertebra prominens: spinous process not bifid and very long

32

thoracic vertebrae

12 vertebrae
-the pairs of ribs attach
spinous processes: pointed and angled sharply down
body: >cervical, but costal facets: rib attachment
-transverse costal facets (T1-T10)
-inferior and superior costal facets

33

Lumbar Vertebrae

5 vertebrae
body: very large and thick
spinous process: blunt and square
superior articular processes: face medially
-resistes to twisting movements

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Sacrum

5 fused
4 transverse lines
anterior and posterior sacral foramina
sacral promontory: on S1, supports S5
superior articular processes on S1
auricular surface

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Coccyx

4 small fused
horns on Co1
-attachment for ligaments binding coccyx to sacrum
attachment for muscles of pelvic floor
fractured
-difficult childbirth
-hard fall on butt

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Thoracic Cage

Thoracic vertebrae, 12 pairs of ribs, sternum
attachment for pectoral girdle and upper limbs
respiratory muscles expand
protect thoracic organs, spleen and most of liver and some kidneys

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sternum

breastbone
3 regions
-manubrium(clavicular notches)
-body
-xiphoid process
--abdominal muscle attachment
--improper CPR=fatal hemorrage

38

Ribs

12 pairs
-anterior(distal) end
-posterior(proximal) end
-costal cartilage: hyaline cartilage attach to the anterior end to sternum
Head
-superior articular facet
-inferior articular facet
Tubercle
-articular facet
True Ribs: 1-7
-own cartilage connecting directly to the sternum
False Ribs: 8-12
-8-10: cartilage connects to other cartilage
-11-12: floating ribs (no cartilage)

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Pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle)

clavicle and scapula
-clavicle articulates
--medially to sternum (sternoclavicular)
--laterally to scapula (acromioclavicular joint)
-scapula articulates with
--humerus (glenohumeral joint)
--loose attachment= easily dislocated

40

Clavicle

sternal end
acromial end
braces shoulder, keep upper limb away from midline of body

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scapula

acromion
coracoid process: biceps muscle tendon attachment
glenoid cavity
spine

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humerous

head articulates with glenoid cavity of scapula
deltoid tuberosity
capitulum
trochlea
lateral and medial epicondyles
olecranon fossa
coronoid fossa
radial fossa

43

Radius

Head: disc shaped, allows rotation
-articulates with capitulum on humerous
-articulates with radial notch on ulna
styloid process
ulnar notch

44

Ulna

Trochlear notch articulates with of humerus
olecranon
coronoid process
radial notch
styloid process
interosseous membrane
-ligament attaches radius to ulna
-two elbow joints share the load

45

Carpal Bones

8 bones in the wrist
-Flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
Proximal Row: (in order from lateral to medial)
-scaphoid
-lunate
-triquetrum
-pisiform (sesamoid)
Distal Row: (in order from medial to lateral)
-hamate
-capitate
-trapezoid
-trapezium

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Pelvic Girdle

2 hip bones and sacrum
Pelvis: pelvic girdle, ligaments and muscles
-supports trunk on lower limbs
-protects viscera

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interpubic disc

fibrocartilage joins pubic bones

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Pubic symphysis

interpubic disc and regions of pubic bone on each side

49

pollex

the thumb

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hallux

big toe

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Hip Bone

iliac crest: superior crest of hip
acetabulum: hip socket
obturator foramen: large hole below acetabulum
adult hip bone: fusion of the ilium, ischium and pubis

52

Ileum

Greater sciatic notch
sacroiliac joint: auricular surface if ileum to auricular surface of sacrum

53

Ischium

ischial tuberosity (where we sit)

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Pubis (pubic bone)

houses the urinary bladder