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What is one major difference between procedural (habit) and declarative memory?

Procedural memory develops gradually and is sensitive to information that is usually but not always correct.


When police ask a witness to identify a suspect from a lineup, which of the following procedures do psychologists recommend?

Ask for a percent confidence answer instead of a yes/no answer.


To investigate a possible case of sexual abuse of a young child, what is the best way to ask the child?

Ask, “tell me what happened,” as soon as possible.


Which of the following is an example of an episodic memory?

“Let me tell you about my trip to Japan …”


Which of the following is an example of source amnesia?

“I don’t remember where I heard this, but I heard that apricot pits can cure cancer.”


Theorists today believe that short-term memory can hold only four items at most. Why can you nevertheless repeat a list of seven or more items?



The “central executive” aspect of working memory is responsible for what?

Shifting attention between one task and another


Emotional arousal enhances memory storage by increasing the release of which hormones?

Cortisol and epinephrine


Other things being equal, you remember a list of words best if you think about them in what way?

How well the items could aid you in a survival situation


According to the depth-of-processing principle, what should you do to improve your chances of remembering something later?

Associate the information with your own interests and experiences.


According to the encoding specificity principle, how should you study if you want to remember something for a lifetime?

Study something in a variety of times and place.


If you want to do well on the final exam in this course, what should you do now?

After you finish this chapter, review some of the earlier chapters in the book.


Old people remember events from young adulthood better than those from middle adulthood. One explanation is that memories continue to consolidate, year after year. What is another explanation?

Memories of young adulthood formed more strongly at the time.


If you studied a list such as “candy, sour, sugar, dessert, salty, taste,…” thoroughly instead of hearing it just once, would you be more likely or less likely to include “sweet,” which isn’t on the list?

Less likely


As discussed in Chapter 5, children who fail to display “theory of mind” seem to assume that if they know something, everyone else would know it too. Which of the following phenomena is similar to that assumption?

Hindsight bias


Last week you read a magazine article and discussed it. Since then you have read several additional articles. When you try to discuss the article you read last week, you find that you cannot remember it clearly. Why?

Retroactive interference


One explanation of the primacy effect is that the first item on a list is not blocked by ______ interference. One explanation of the recency effect is that the last item on the list is not blocked by ______ interference.

proactive … retroactive


In which of these ways does a memory recovered by therapy differ, on average, from traumatic memories that people recover spontaneously?

Recovered memories are seldom supported by evidence.


Based on studies of children known to have experienced highly traumatic experiences, what are the implications for the concept of repression?

If repression occurs at all, it occurs under rare and unknown circumstances.


If someone is trying to remember an event that may have happened long ago, what is the probable consequence of showing a photograph from that period of time?

The person becomes more susceptible to suggestion of something that didn’t happen.


Which kind of memory was most impaired in patient H. M.?

Declarative memory, especially episodic memory


Which of the following is most characteristic of people with Korsakoff’s syndrome?



Most adults remember very few events from early childhood. Studies on mice support which explanation for this infantile amnesia?

Infants form many new neurons that not only facilitate new learning but also forgetting.


What can we infer from comparing several methods of testing memory?

How well you remember something depends on how someone tests you.


Suppose your final exam is just one essay question: "Describe everything you learned in this course!" What type of memory test is that?

Free recall


Which kind of memory test are you taking right now?



Your memory of how to define some word is an example of what?

Semantic memory


Remembering your most recent visit to your cousins is what type of memory?

Episodic memory


An experimenter reads many series of letters, such as TGWNR, and you try to recall each one later, without rehearsing during the delay. About how long would each memory probably last?

A few seconds but less than 20


Suppose you watch the news on TV every night. According to the recency effect in memory, which of the following are you likely to remember?

The news that you watched last night