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In a pioneering study, Shepard and Metzler concluded that imagining how something would look from a different angle is something like actually watching something rotate. They drew this conclusion by measuring what?

The delay of people’s responses


Suppose you are in a field of brownish bushes and one motionless brown rabbit. You will find it by ______ . If the rabbit starts hopping, you will find it by______ .

an attentive process … a preattentive process


What does the Stroop effect demonstrate?

Familiarity with a word can interfere with saying the color of its ink.


Other things being equal, which children in a class are most likely to be treated for ADHD?

Children who are younger than average for the grade in school


Priming a concept is responsible for which of the following?

Spreading activation


In contrast to System 1 (or Type 1 thinking), what is true of System 2?

It is best suited to considering and evaluating complex evidence.


What is a heuristic?

A strategy for simplifying a problem


In decision making, what is the disadvantage of being a maximizer?

Maximizers tend to be less satisfied with their decisions.


People who believe that violent or bizarre behavior is more common on nights of a full moon remember the few occasions that fit this expectation and decide that the results support their belief. This is an example of which heuristic?

The availability heuristic


Steve says he has a coworker who is persecuting him. You conclude that Steve is paranoid, ignoring the possibility that Steve really does have an enemy. This is a possible example of which heuristic?

The representativeness heuristic


Someone tells me that if I say “abracadabra” every morning, I will stay healthy. I say it daily and, sure enough, I stay healthy. I conclude that this magic word ensures health. What error of thinking have I made?

Confirmation bias


People will buy meat that claims “90 percent fat free,” but not one that says “contains 10 percent fat.” This observation is an example of which of the following?

Framing effect


Why do most musicians have better-than-average hearing? And what’s the evidence?

People with better hearing are more likely than average to practice music. Twins with more music practice do not have better hearing than their twins with little or no practice.


As people develop expertise in a skill such as chess, what improves?

Their ability to recognize common patterns


Many people recommend that old people do crossword puzzles or similar activities to improve everyday memory. If that advice worked (and generally it doesn’t), it would be an example of what?

Far transfer


When bonobos learned to use symbols to communicate, what training method was used?

Observation and imitation


Someone with Broca’s aphasia shows impairments most strongly with regard to which aspect of language?

Use of prepositions, word endings, and other grammatical devices


At what age do people begin to use rules of grammar?

Very early, even at ages 2 or 3


What is the most convincing evidence that early exposure to language is necessary for language development?

Deaf children who do not learn any language when young are seriously impaired when they try to learn one later.


Suppose one sound in a word is engineered to sound halfway between d and t, or halfway between s and sh. What do you hear?

You hear the sound that makes more sense in context, unless the context is delayed.


What is meant by the “word-superiority effect”?

You more easily recognize a letter when it is part of a word than when it is alone.


When we read a word, do we read it one letter at a time? And what’s the evidence?

No, we do not. An ambiguous letter can appear to be one letter in one context and a different letter in some other context.


Reading alternates between fixations and saccades. On average, a person reading an alphabetic language can read about _____ characters during a fixation and about _____ during a saccade.

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