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What evidence did Spearman have for the existence of g?

Scores on any test of intelligent performance correlate positively with scores on other tests.


On average, how does intelligence change from young adulthood to old adulthood?

Fluid intelligence declines, but crystallized intelligence remains constant or increases.


Many educators maintain that different children have different learning styles, such as visual learner or auditory learner. What does the evidence say about this proposal?

The research does not support the idea of different styles of learning.


What evidence would demonstrate the existence of an intellectual ability separate from g?

The ability predicts some type of intelligent behavior but has a low correlation with the tests that measure g.


What was the original purpose of Binet’s first IQ test?

to identify slow learners who needed special education


Under what circumstances do environmental interventions most strongly promote intellectual development?

if they start in early childhood


Theoretically, the distribution of IQ scores should have a mean of 100 and an equal number of people above and below the mean. How does the actual distribution of scores differ from this prediction?

The mode (most common score) is 105.


On average, how do males and females compare in IQ?

On average, males and females differ on certain subscores, but are equal on overall IQ.


Why have psychologists needed to restandardize IQ tests repeatedly over the years?

To prevent the mean from increasing above 100


A hundred people take a test. We find that the person with the highest score on the odd-numbered items also has the highest score on the even-numbered items. Someone else has the second highest score on both sets of items, and so forth down to the 100th person. Which of the following can we conclude about this test?

It has high reliability and unknown validity.


At which kind of college, if any, would you expect SAT scores to have the highest validity for predicting grades?

A college that admits everyone, ranging from those with high SAT scores to those with very low scores


Suppose on some new IQ test tall people generally get higher scores than short people. Which of the following would be the strongest evidence that the test is biased against short people?

It would be strong evidence if someone demonstrated that short people get better grades in school than the test scores predict.


Which of the following is another way to state the idea of stereotype threat?

If you expect to do poorly on a test, you probably will.


The concept of the "g" factor in intelligence was based on what evidence?

Most people who do well on one mental test also do well on many others.


What is one possible explanation for Spearman's g factor in intelligence?

Factors such as health and nutrition promote development in all brain areas.


Solving a problem of a type you have never seen before requires which type of intelligence?

Fluid intelligence


An experienced worker with highly practiced skills is demonstrating which of these?

Crystallized intelligence


What evidence argues AGAINST Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?

Test scores on language, logic, and spatial reasoning correlate highly with one another.


What, if anything, do high or low IQ scores explain?

IQ scores do not explain anything.


If your professor gave you an "adaptive test," how would it differ from most college tests?

The questions would get easier or harder, depending on how well you are doing.


If differences in heredity are important for differences in IQ scores, what should we expect to find?

IQ correlations should be higher for monozygotic than dizygotic twins.


In addition to genetics, what might help explain the correlation between adopted children’s IQ scores and those of their biological mothers?

Prenatal environment


If you want to standardize a new IQ test, what is the FIRST thing you must do?

Administer the test to a large representative sample of the population


What does it mean to say that someone with an IQ score of 130 is in the 98th percentile?

This person scored better than 98% of comparable people.


Of the possible explanations for the Flynn effect, which of these is the LEAST likely?

Improved education


How could you measure the reliability of a new test intended to measure nervousness?

Test people repeatedly and see whether they get about the same score each time.


Imagine a test that determines your IQ score by this formula: Length of head divided by width of head X 100. What, if anything, can we predict about this test?

It will have high reliability and low validity.


Why can someone predict the grades for first-year English graduate students better from their Graduate Record Exam (GRE) quantitative scores than from their GRE verbal scores?

Nearly all English grad students have very similar, high verbal scores.