Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (16):
Know about infant and toddler emotional development in terms of when certain emotions arise and why they are displayed.
At first there is only pleasure and pain (happy when fed, cry when hurt)
Happiness is expressed by the social smile 6 weeks
Laughter 3-4 months (curiosity)
Anger comes 4-8 months and is triggered by frustration
Fear 9 months, new person thing or situation (separation anxiety and stranger wariness are the two main forms)
Pride or shame; embarrassed 18 months
What are the types of distress a baby will exhibit when around others
Stranger wariness: fear of unfamiliar people, especially when they move too quickly
What type of anxiety do they display when a caregiver leaves?
Separation anxiety: clinging and crying when a familiar caregiver is about to leave
How is adult personality different from temperament
Personality traits are learned whereas tempermental traits are genetic
what are the 5 factors of personality
The big five: the five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout life (OCEAN)
types of attatchment
Securely Attached (type B): (feel comfortable and confident from presence of caregiver) children are able to separate from caregiver but prefer caregiver to strangers.
Later in life they tend to have good relationships and good self-esteem
Avoidant (Type A): children avoid caregiver
Later in life tend to be aloof in personal relationships
Resistant/Ambivalent (Type C): Children appear upset and worried when separated from caregiver; they may hit or cling
Later in life their relationships may be angry, story, or unpredictable
Disorganized (Type D): children appear angry, confused, erratic or fearful
Later in life they can demonstrate odd behavior-including sudden emotions
What is self-awareness?
Self-awareness: The realization that one’s body, mind and activities are distinct from those of other people
How can self awareness be measured
Can be measured with mirror self recognition test (self-recognition in the mirror/rouge test)
Synchrony: coordinated, rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant
Early parent-child interactions are described as synchrony, a mutual exchange that requires split-second timing
What are distal and proximal parenting and what trait in the child does each tend to encourage?
Proximal parenting: being physically close to a baby, often holding and touching
Toddlers become more obedient to their parents but less likely to recognize themselves in a mirror
Distal parenting: keeping some distance-providing toys, encouraging self-feeding, talking face-to-face instead of communicating by touch
What is a working model according to cognitive theory?
Working model: in cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. Example trusting other people then being surprised when someone is untrustworthy
Crucial idea of cognitive theory
The experiences themselves is not important, it is the interpretation of those experiences
Early experiences help infants develop a working model but it is never fixed or final
average weight for a 6 year old
what age is bmi lowest
age 5 and 6
How does their appetite change
Appetite decreases between 2-6 because young children grow more slowly and need fewer calories per pound than they did as infants