Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

Theories > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (50):
1

The person-centered view of human nature:

views people as basically competitive.
states that humans are driven by irrational forces.
affirms a person's capacity to direct his or her own life.
assumes that, while humans have the potential for growth, we tend to remain stagnant.

affirms a person's capacity to direct his or her own life.

2

Person-centered therapy is best described as:

a systematic set of behavioral techniques.
a fixed set of therapeutic principles.
a completed "school" of counseling.
a philosophy of how the therapy process develops.

a philosophy of how the therapy process develops.

3

A self-actualized person:

has a capacity for deep and intense interpersonal relationships.
welcomes uncertainty in his or her life.
does not have artificial dichotomies within himself or herself.
is spontaneous and creative.
all of these.

all of these

4

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the person-centered approach?

Importance is placed on the attitudes and beliefs of the therapist.
The focus is on the subjective world of the client.
Emphasis is given to developing a contract for therapy.
It is supported by evidence from ongoing research.
Attention is directed toward the personal relationship between the client and the therapist.

Emphasis is given to developing a contract for therapy.

5

Person-centered therapy is a(n):

existential approach to therapy.
humanistic approach to therapy.
action-oriented approach to therapy.
deterministic approach to therapy.

humanistic approach to therapy.

(hint: existential is like Gestalt therapy [directive, existential])

6

What is the most important factor related to progress in person-centered therapy?

the relationship between the client and therapist
defining concrete and measurable goals
the therapist's ability to think logically and to scientifically solve problems
the client's motivation for change
the therapist's technical skills

the relationship between the client and therapist

7

Carlos, an eight year old boy, was recently removed from his home because he was being physically and sexually abused by his father. In accordance with Maslow's framework, which needs took precedence?

physical and safety needs esteem from self and others
self-actualization
belonging and love

physical and safety needs

8

Which of the following is not considered a necessary and sufficient condition for change in the person-centered framework?

congruence
unconditional positive regard
accurate empathetic understanding
creative expression

creative expression

9

Which statement(s) is (are) true of the person-centered approach?

Therapists should give advice when clients need it.
The techniques a therapist uses are less important than his or her attitudes.
Therapists should function largely as teachers.
Therapy is primarily the therapist's responsibility.

The techniques a therapist uses are less important than his or her attitudes.

10

Which of the following is not a key concept of the person-centered approach?

The focus is on experiencing the immediate moment.
The client is primarily responsible for the direction of therapy.
The focus is on exploration of a client's past.
The person has the capacity to resolve his or her own problems in a climate of safety.

The focus is on exploration of a client's past.

11

The person-centered therapist is best described as a:

human engineer
facilitator.
teacher
friend.

facilitator

12

In order for a therapist to communicate "accurate empathic understanding" the counselor must:

feel a deep sense of warmth toward the client.
have experienced a situation very similar to the client's current predicament.
clarify details and facts relevant to the client's experiences.
connect emotionally to the client's subjective experience.

connect emotionally to the client's subjective experience.

13

The technique of reflection involves the therapist:

restating the client's words verbatim.
sharing his or her genuine emotional response with the client.
bringing an actual mirror into the session and having a client look at himself or herself in the mirror.
mirroring the client's emotional experience of a particular situation.

mirroring the client's emotional experience of a particular situation.

14

Arguably, the most central limitation of the person centered approach is:

the continual evolution of the approach leads to unclear therapeutic principles.
the therapist's limitations as a person.
shortcomings of the studies of the approach.
their view of assessment and diagnosis.

the therapist's limitations as a person.

15

The person-centered philosophy views diagnosis as:

a labeling process that diminishes the therapist's ability to develop a holistic understanding of the client.
a useful tool for case conceptualization.
a necessary process that does not impact the course of therapy.
a meaningful way of understanding of a client's psychological state.

a labeling process that diminishes the therapist's ability to develop a holistic understanding of the client.

16

What is a limitation of person-centered therapy?

The client is not given enough responsibility to direct the course of his or her own therapy.
The approach does not emphasize the role of techniques in creating change in the client's life.
The therapist has more power to manipulate and control the client than is true of most other therapies.
It is a long-term approach to therapy.
The approach does not make use of research to study the process or outcomes of therapy.

The approach does not emphasize the role of techniques in creating change in the client's life.

17

Which of the following is not true about Carl Rogers?

He was a pioneer in humanistic approaches to counseling.
He developed cognitive therapy.
At one point in his life, he was preparing to enter the ministry.
He made a contribution toward achieving world peace.
He was raised with strict religious standards in his home.

He developed cognitive therapy.

18

Which of the following is the correct order in terms of the historical development of Carl Rogers's approach to counseling?

person-centered/client-centered/nondirective
client-centered/nondirective/person-centered
client-centered/person-centered/nondirective
nondirective/person-centered/client-centered
nondirective/client-centered/person-centered

nondirective/client-centered/person-centered

19

According to Rogerian therapy, an "internal source of evaluation" is defined as:

internalizing the validation one receives from others.
a neurotic tendency to be self-critical.
going on one's instincts when judging the behavior of others.
a success identity.
looking more to oneself for the answers to the problems of existence.

looking more to oneself for the answers to the problems of existence.

20

Which of the following personal characteristics of the therapist is most important, according to Carl Rogers?

accurate active listening
accurate empathic understanding
acceptance
genuineness
unconditional positive regard

genuineness

21

Carl Rogers's position on confronting the client is that:

caring confrontations can be beneficial.
confrontation causes clients to stop growing.
confrontation is to be avoided at all costs.
confrontation reflects that the therapist has a need to be in control.

caring confrontations can be beneficial.

22

Carl Rogers drew heavily from existential concepts, especially as they apply to:

death and nonbeing.
the client/therapist relationship.
countertransference, or unfinished business of the counselor.
the transference relationship.
guilt and anxiety.

the client/therapist relationship.

23

A consistent theme that underlies most of Carl Rogers's writings is:

the need to find meaning in life through love, work, or suffering.
the need for clients to relive past traumatic situations in the here-and-now.
the importance of expressing feelings that stem from childhood issues.
a faith in the capacity of individuals to develop in a constructive manner if a climate of trust is established.
the need for a religion to find meaning in life.

a faith in the capacity of individuals to develop in a constructive manner if a climate of trust is established.

24

Person-centered therapy is best explained as:

a set of techniques to build trust in clients.
a dogma.
a fixed and completed approach to therapy.
all of these.
none of these.

none of these

25

From Carl Rogers's perspective the client/therapist relationship is characterized by:

a clearly defined contract that specifies what clients will talk about in the sessions.
the therapist functioning as the expert.
the transference relationship.
a sense of equality.

a sense of equality.

26

The person-centered approach has been applied to:

family therapy.
personal-growth groups.
foreign relations.
education
all of these

all of these

27

One of the limitations of the person-centered approach is that:

it is not grounded in personality theory.
there can be a tendency to give too much support and not enough challenge.
therapists use vigorous confrontation methods.
its has not been subjected to rigorous research.

there can be a tendency to give too much support and not enough challenge.

28

In person-centered group therapy, the leader:

facilitates the direction of group discussions.
uses techniques and exercises to motivate the group.
sets goals for the group members.
focuses on making interpretations.
displays a sense of trust in the members.

displays a sense of trust in the members.

29

In the 1960s and 1970s Rogers did a great deal to spearhead the development of:

personal-growth groups and encounter groups.
registration and certification of person-centered counselors.
private colleges aimed at training person-centered therapists.
the National Training Laboratories and T-groups.
organizational management seminars.

personal-growth groups and encounter groups.

30

Concerning research on psychotherapy, it can be said that Carl Rogers:

stated his concepts as testable hypotheses and submitted them to research.
inspired others to conduct extensive research on counseling process and outcome.
literally opened the field for psychotherapy research.
all of these.
none of these

all of these

31

Person-centered research has been conducted on:

treating specific behavioral problems.
comparing the outcomes of person-centered therapy with other models.
the hypothesized necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change.
treatment of personality disorders.
all of these.

all of these

32

Accurate empathic understanding helps clients to:

reconceptualize earlier experiences
modify their perceptions of themselves, others, and the world.
notice and value their experiences.
increase their confidence in making choices and in pursuing a course of action.
all of these.

all of these

33

Carl Rogers's original emphasis was on reflection of feelings expressed by the client.

True

34

Carl Rogers's approach is based on the assumptions that humans are trustworthy and that clients desire to grow.

True

35

The person-centered approach is based on a set of specific therapeutic techniques designed to promote behavior change.

False

36

According to Carl Rogers, personality change occurs only when clients develop insight into the origin of their personality problems.

False

37

Free association and dream analysis are a typical part of the person-centered therapist's procedures.

False

38

Carl Rogers is often called the "father of psychotherapy research."

True

39

Congruence is a basic characteristic of effective therapists.

True

40

Therapists are encouraged to use positive regard for clients only as a means of shaping their behavior.

False

41

The concept of unconditional positive regard implies that therapists develop an accepting and approving attitude toward all actions taken by their clients.

False

(hint: "actions" should be no actions)

42

Therapists who demonstrate little acceptance of their clients can anticipate that their therapeutic attempts will falter.

True

43

Accurate empathic understanding implies an objective understanding of a client.

Fasle

(hint: objective should be subjective)

44

Students of the person-centered approach sometimes have difficulty letting clients truly find their own way and make decisions in an unassisted fashion.

True

45

The term "presence" refers to the counselor's ability to be fully engaged in the therapeutic relationship with the client.

True

46

An assumption of person-centered therapy is that the counselor's presence is far more powerful than techniques he or she uses to facilitate change.

True

47

Carl Rogers encouraged counselors to use caring confrontations with their clients.

True

48

Person-centered therapy groups emphasize self-acceptance and self-reliance.

True

49

The person-centered approach places emphasis on the necessary and sufficient conditions for change.

True

50

The person-centered model has been widely adapted to include such areas as family therapy, crisis counseling and classroom education.

True