Chapter 7: Energy Flashcards Preview

Nutrition 120 > Chapter 7: Energy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7: Energy Deck (44):
1

overweight

being too heavy for one's height. It is defined as having a body mass index of 25-29.9kg/m^2

2

obesity

a condition characterized by execs body fat. It is defined as a body mass index of 30kg/m^2 or greater

3

total energy expenditure (TEE)

the sum of the energy used for basal metabolism, activity, processing food, deposition of new tissue, and production of milk

4

basal energy expenditure (BEE)

the energy expended to maintain an awake resting body that is not digesting food

5

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

the rate of energy expenditure under resting conditions. BMR measurements are performed in a warm room in the morning before the subject rises, and at least 12 hours after the last food or activity

6

resting energy expenditure (REE) or resting metabolic rate (RMR)

terms used when an estimate of basal metabolism is determined by measuring energy utilization after 5-6 hours without food or exercise

7

lean body mass (LBM)

body mass attributed to nonfat body components such as bone, muscle, and internal organs. It is also called fat-free mass

8

non exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)

the nervy expended for everything we do other than sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise

9

thermic effect of food (TEF) or diet-induced thermogenesis

the energy required for the digestion of food and the absorption, metabolism, and storage of nutrients. It is equal to approximately 10% of daily energy intake.

10

adipocytes

fat-storing cells

11

glycogen primary location

liver and muscle

12

glucose or free-fatty acid primary location

body fluids

13

triglycerides

adipose tissue

14

protein

muscle

15

direct calorimetry

a method of determining energy used that measures the amount of heat produced

16

indirect calorimetry

a method of estimating energy use that compared the amount of oxygen consumed to the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled

17

doubly-labelled water technique

a method for measuring the disappearance of heavy (but not radioactive) isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in body fluids after consumption of a defined amount of water labelled with both isotopes

18

isotopes

alternative forms of an element that have different atomic masses, which may or may not be radioactive

19

estimated energy requirements (EER)

the among of energy recommended by the DRIs to maintain body weight in a healthy person based on age, gender, size, and activity level

20

physical activity (PA)

a numeric value associated with activity label that is a variable in the EER equations used to calculate energy needs

21

comorbidity

two disease states or health conditions that occur together, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes

22

body mass index (BMI)

a measure of body weight in relation to height that is used to compare body size with a standard

23

bioelectric impedance analysis

a technique for estimating body composition that measures body fat by directing a low-energy electric current through the body and calculating resistance to flow

24

skinfold thickness

a measurement of subcutaneous fat used to estimate total body fat

25

subcutaneous fat

adipose tissue that is located under the skin

26

underwater weighing

a technique that uses the difference between body weight underwater and body weight on land to estimate body density and calculate cody composition

27

visceral fat

adipose tissue that is located in the abdomen around the body's internal organs

28

set-point theory

the theory that when people finish growing, their wight remains relatively stable for long periods despite periodic changes in energy intake or output

29

obesity genes

genes that code for proteins involved in the regulation, or the deposition of body fat. When they are abnormal, the result is abnormal amounts of body fat.

30

hunger

internal signals that stimulate one to acquire and consume food

31

satiety

the feeling of fullness and satisfaction, caused by food consumption, that eliminates the desire to eat

32

ghrelin

a hormone produced by the stomach that stimulates food intake

33

leptin

a protein hormone produced by adipocytes that signals information about the amount of body fat

34

leptin resistance

a lack of responsiveness to the hormone leptin; characterized, in obesity, by high levels of leptin in the blood but the lack of response to the action of leptin, which is to decrease energy intake and increase energy expenditure

35

adaptive thermogenesis

the change in energy expenditure induced by factors such as changes in ambient temperature and food intake

36

brown adipose tissue

a type of fat tissue that has a greater number of mitochondria than the more common white adipose tissue. It can waste energy by producing heat.

37

behaviour modification

a process used to gradually and permanently change habitual behaviours

38

very-low-kcalorie diet

a weight-loss diet that provides fewer than 800 kcal/day

39

protein-sparing modified fast

a very-low-kcal diet with a high proportion of protein, designed to maximize the loss of fat and minimize the loss of protein from the body

40

gastric banding

a surgical procedure in which an adjustable band is placed around the upper portion of the stomach to limit the volume that the to mach can hold and the rate of stomach emptying

41

gastric bypass

a surgical procedure to treat morbid obesity that both reduces the size of the stomach and bypasses the portion of the small intestine

42

liposuction

a procedure that suctions out adipose tissue form under the skin; used to decrease the size of local fat deposits such as on the abdomen or hips

43

thermogenesis

Increase in metabolic rate that occurs in response to some stimulus. (generation of heat)

44

thermogenesis stimulus (4)

1. Medications/drugs: caffeine, alcohol, smoking (nicotine)
2. Exposure to the cold: shivering
3. Stress (high metabolic rate)
4. Dietary induced thermogenesis