Nutrition Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nutrition Chapter 3 Deck (68):
1

What organs are included in the digestive system? (8)

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

2

What are the functions of the digestive system?

Ingests and digests food; absorbs nutrients intro the blood; eliminates unabsorbed food residues.

3

Define Digestion

The process of breaking food into components small enough to be absorbed into the body.

4

Define Absorption

The process of taking substances into the interior of the body.

5

Define Feces

Body waste, including unabsorbed food residue, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells, which is excreted from the gastrointestinal tract by passing through the anus.

6

What is the Gastrointestinal Tract?

A hollow tube consisting of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and anus, in which digestion and absorption of nutrients occur.

7

What is the function of the mouth for digestion?

Chews food and mixes it with saliva.

8

What is the function of the salivary glands for digestion?

Produce saliva, which contains a starch-digesting enzyme.

9

What is the function of the pharynx for digestion?

Swallows chewed food mixed with saliva.

10

What is the function of the esophagus for digestion?

Moves food to the stomach.

11

What is the function of the stomach for digestion?

Churns and mixes food; secretes acid and a protein-digesting enzyme.

12

What is the function of the liver for digestion?

Makes bile, which aids in digestion and absorption of fat.

13

What is the function of the pancreas for digestion?

Releases bicarbonate to neutralize intestinal contents; produces enzymes that digest carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

14

What is the function of the gallbladder for digestion?

Stores bile and releases it into the small intestine when needed.

15

What is the function of the small intestine for digestion?

Completes digestion; absorbs nutrients into blood or lymph.

16

What is the function of the large intestine for digestion?

Absorbs water and some vitamins and minerals; home to intestinal bacteria; passes waste material.

17

What is the function of the anus for digestion?

Opens to allow waste to leave the body.

18

What is Transit Time?

The time between the ingestion of food and the elimination of the solid waste from the food.

19

What is the Mucosa?

The layer of tissue lining the GI tract and other body cavities.

20

What is Mucus?

A viscous fluid secreted by glands in the GI tract and other parts of the body, which acts to lubricate, moisten, and protect cells from harsh environments.

21

What are Enzymes?

Protein molecules that accelerate the rate of specific chemical reactions without themselves being changed.

22

What are hormones?

Chemical messengers that are produced in one location, released into the blood, and elicit responses at other locations in the body.

23

What is Salivary Amylase and where is it found?

It breaks down starch into smaller carbohydrate particles and is found in the mouth.

24

What is Rennin and where is it found?

It causes the milk protein casein to curdle and is found in the stomach.

25

What is Pepsin and where is it found?

It breaks proteins into polypeptides and amino acids and is found in the stomach.

26

What is Trypsin and where is it found?

It breaks proteins and polypeptides into shorter polypeptides and is found in the pancreas.

27

What is Chymotrypsin and where is it found?

It breaks proteins and polypeptides into shorter polypeptides and is found in the pancreas.

28

What is Carboxypeptidase and where is it found?

It breaks polypeptides into amino acids. It's found in the pancreas and small intestine.

29

What is Pancreatic Lipase and where is it found?

It breaks triglycerides into monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol. It is found in the pancreas.

30

What are Aminopeptidase and Dipeptidase and where are they found?

They breaks polypeptides into amino acids and are found in the small intestine.

31

What is Lipase and where is it found?

It breaks monoglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol and found in the small intestine.

32

What is Sucrase and where is it found?

It breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose, and is found in the small intestine.

33

What is Lactase and where is it found?

It breaks lactose into glucose and galactose, and is found in the small intestine.

34

What is Maltase and where is it found?

It breaks maltose into glucose, and is found in the small intestine.

35

What is Dextrinase and where is it found?

It breaks short chains of glucose into individual glucose molecules, and is found in the small intestine.

36

What is Gastrin and where does it come from?

It's a hormone that stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen by gastric glands in the stomach and increases gastric motility and emptying, and comes from the stomach mucosa.

37

What is Somatostatin and where does it come from?

It's a hormone that inhibits the following: stomach secretion, motility, and emptying; pancreatic secretion; absorption in the small intestine; gallbladder contraction; and bile release. It comes from stomach and duodenal mucosa.

38

What is Secretin and where does it come from?

It's a hormone that inhibits gastric secretion and motility; increases output of water and bicarbonate from the pancreas; increases bile output from the liver. It comes from the duodenal mucosa.

39

What is Cholecytokinin (CCK) and where does it come from?

It's a hormone that stimulates contraction of the gallbladder to expel bile; increases output of enzyme rich pancreatic juice. It comes from the duodenal mucosa.

40

What is Gastric inhibitory peptide and where does it come from?

It's a hormone that inhibits gastric secretion and motility, and comes from the duodenal mucosa.

41

What is Saliva?

A watery fluid produced and secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands. It contains lubricants, enzymes, and other substances.

42

What is Lysozyme?

An enzyme in saliva, tears, and sweat that is capable of destroying certain types of bacteria.

43

What is the Epiglottis?

A piece of elastic connective tissue at the back of the throat that covers the opening of the passageway to the lungs during swallowing.

44

What is Peristalsis?

Coordinated muscular contractions that move through the GI tract.

45

What is the Sphincter?

A muscular valve that helps control the flow of materials in the GI tract.

46

What is Chyme?

A mixture of partially digested food and stomach secretions.

47

What are Parietal Cells?

Cells in the stomach that make hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor in response to nervous or hormonal stimulation.

48

What is Pepsinogen?

An inactive protein-digesting enzyme produced by gastric glands and activated to pepsin by acid in the stomach.

49

What is a Peptic Ulcer?

An open sore in the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or small intestine.

50

What are Villi?

Finger-like protrusions of the lining of the small intestine that participate in the digestion and absorption of nutrients.

51

What are Microvilli or "Brush Border"?

Minute, brush-like projections on the mucosal cell membrane that increase the absorptive surface area in the small intestine.

52

What is the Lacteal?

A tubular component of the lymphatic system that carries fluid away from body tissues. Lymph vessels in the intestine are known as lacteals and can transport large particles such as the products of fat digestion.

53

What is Segmentation?

Rhythmic local constrictions of the intestine that mix food with digestive juices and speed absorption by repeatedly moving the food mass over the intestinal wall.

54

What is Bile?

A substance made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, which is released into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion and absorption.

55

What is the Colon?

The largest portion of the large intestine.

56

What is the Rectum?

The portion of the large intestine that connects the colon and anus.

57

What is Intestinal Microflora?

Microorganisms that inhabit the large intestine.

58

What is Hepatic Portal Circulation?

The system of blood vessels that collects nutrient-laden blood from the digestive organs and delivers it to the liver.

59

What is the Lymphatic System?

The system of vessels, organs, and tissues, that drains excess fluid from the spaces between cells, transports fat soluble substances from the digestive tract and contributes to immune function.

60

What are Capillaries?

Small, thin-walled blood vessels where the exchange of gases and nutrients between blood and cells occurs.

61

What are Veins?

Vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

62

What are Arteries?

Vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

63

What is the Hepatic Portal Vein?

The vein that transports blood from the GI tract to the liver.

64

True or False: Fibre is a substance that cannot be absorbed by the body and therefore is excreted from the GI tract in the feces.

True.

65

True or False: Waste products generated by the metabolism of absorbed substances (CO2 Nitrogen, H2O) are excreted from the GI tract in the feces.

False. These are eliminated by the lungs, skin, and kidneys.

66

True or False: The kidneys are the primary site for the excretion of water, metabolic waste products, and excess minerals.

True. Filtered substances that are needed return to blood cells and ones that are not needed are passed down the ureters to the bladder and excreted in the urine.

67

What are Nephrons?

The functional unit of the kidney which performs the job of filtering the blood and maintaining fluid balance.

68

What are Glomerulus?

A ball of capillaries in the nephron that filters blood during urine formation.