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Flashcards in Nutrition Chapter 1 Deck (38):

Define Nutrition

A science that studies the interactions that occur between living organisms and food.


Define Nutrients

Chemical substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes.


What are Processed Foods?

Foods that have been specially treated or changed from their natural state.


What is the Canadian Community Health Survey?

This is a comprehensive survey of health-related issues, including the eating habits of 35,000 Canadians, that was begun in 2000 and continues to collect data annually.


What are essential nutrients?

Nutrients that must be provided in the diet because the body either cannot make them or cannot make them in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of the body.


What are Fortified Foods?

Foods to which one or more nutrients have been added, typically to replace nutrient losses during processing or to prevent known inadequacies in the average diet.


What are Natural Health Products?

Are a category of products regulated by Health Canada that include vitamin and mineral supplements, amino acids, fatty acids, probiotics, herbal remedies, and homeopathic and other traditional medicines. They occupy a middle ground between foods and drugs.


What are Phytochemicals?

Substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting benefits.


What are Zoochemicals?

Substances found in animal foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting benefits.


What are Energy Yielding Nutrients? List the three energy yielding nutrients.

Nutrients that can be metabolized to provide energy in the body. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are the energy yielding nutrients. Alcohol also provides energy but is not a nutrient.


What are Macronutrients and what do they include?

Nutrients needed by the body in large doses, which includes water, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.


What are Micronutrients and what do they include?

Nutrients needed by the body in small quantities, they include vitamins and minerals.


What are Organic Molecules?

Those containing carbon-hydrogen bonds. Vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are organic molecules.


What are Inorganic Molecules?

Those that do not contain a carbon-hydrogen bond. Water and minerals are inorganic molecules.


What is a Kilocalorie?

The unit of heat that is used to express the amount of energy provided by foods. The amount of heat required to raise one kilogram of water one degree Celsius.


What is a Kilojoule?

A unit of work that can be used to describe the energy intake and energy output.


How many Kilocalories/gram and Kilojoules/gram do Carbohydrates have?

4 kcal/gram and 16.7 kjoule/gram.


How many Kilocalories/gram and Kilojoules/gram do Proteins have?

4 kcal/gram and 16.7 kjoule/gram.


How many Kilocalories/gram and Kilojoules/gram do Lipids have?

9 kcal/gram and 37.6 kjoule/gram.


How many Kilocalories/gram and Kilojoules/gram does Alcohol have?

7 kcal/gram and 29.3 kjoule/gram.


What is a legume? What are some examples? (5)

The starchy seeds of plants belonging to the pea family. Includes peanuts, lentils, soybeans, beans, and peas.


What are the three functions of nutrients?

1. Providing Energy 2. Forming Structures 3. Regulating Body Processes


Define Metabolism

The sum of all the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism.


Define Homeostasis

A physiological state in which a stable internal body environment in maintained.


Define Malnutrition

Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake that is either above or below optimal levels.


Define Undernutrition

Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake that is below the level of nutritional needs.


Define Overnutrition

Poor nutritional status resulting from an energy or nutrient intake in excess of that which is optimal for health.


What nutrients help with energy? (3)

Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.


What nutrients help with structure? (3)

Lipids, proteins, and minerals.


What nutrients help maintain body regulation? (6)

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals.


Define Genes

Units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits.


What are nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics?

The study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health.


What factors affect food choices? (7)

1. Availability2. Cultural and Family Background3. Social Acceptability 4. Personal Preference 5. Psychological and Emotional Factors6. Health Concerns7. Media


What is adequacy?

A state in which there is sufficient amount of a nutrient or nutrients in the diet to maintain health.


Define Nutrient Density

An evaluation of the nutrient content of a food in comparison to the kcalories it provides.


What five factors are important in choosing a healthy diet?

1. Adequacy and nutrient density2. Eat a variety of foods3. Balance your choices4. Everything in moderation 5. Ensuring Kcalorie control


What is Portion Distortion?

The increase in portion sizes for typical restaurant and snack foods, observed over the last 40 years.


What are the nine essential amino acids?

Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryotophan, and valine.