Flashcards in Nutrition Chapter 2 Deck (26):
What does an individual's nutritional needs depend on? (3)
Age, gender, and genetic makeup.
What are the two approaches to making a nutrition recommendation?
1. Nutrient Based approach2. Food Based approach (where a dietary pattern is used)
What is a dietary pattern?
A description of a way of eating that includes the types and amounts of recommended foods and food groups, rather than individual nutrients. (ex. how many fruits and vegetables should be eaten)
What are DRIs?
Dietary Recommended Intakes, a set of reference values for the intake of energy, nutrients, and food components that can be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people in the United States and Canada. Designed to promote health and prevent nutrient deficiencies.
True or False: Canada's Food Guide is nutrient based.
False, it is a food based dietary pattern that has been a central tool in the promotion of healthy and nutritious eating.
How often should eggs be eaten?
At least 3 or 4 eggs should be eaten weekly.
True or false: The DRIs are for every one; sick, ill, or healthy.
False. DRIs are designed to be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people.
What are Life-Stage Groups?
Groups that DRIs are separated into that account for the different needs of people based on stages of growth and development, pregnancy, and lactation. They account for the physiological differences between infants, children, adolescents, adults, and seniors. Male and female differences are also taken into account.
What are the four different DRI reference values?
1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)2. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)3. Adequate Intake (AI)4. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
What are RDAs?
Recommended dietary allowance, intakes that are sufficient to meet the nutrient needs of almost all the healthy people in a specific life stage and gender group.
What are AIs?
Adequate intakes, intakes that should be used as a goal when no RDA exists. These values are an approximation of the average nutrient intake that appears to sustain a desired indicator of health.
What are ULs?
Tolerable upper intake levels, maximum daily intakes that are unlikely to pose a risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the specified life-stage and gender group.
What are EARs?
Estimated average requirements, intakes that meet the estimated nutrient needs of 50% of individuals in a gender and life-stage group.
Define Criterion of Adequacy
A functional indicator, such as the level of a nutrient in the blood, that can be measured to determine the biological effect of a level of nutrient intake.
Define Requirement Distribution
A plot of the nutrient requirements for a group of individuals in the same life stage. Typically has a bell-curve shape.
What is the EAR cutpoint method?
A method that indicates the proportion of a population that is not meeting its requirements, indicated by the proportion of the population with intakes below the EAR.
Define Intake Distribution
A plot of the intakes of a specific nutrient in a population. The space under the curve line indicates the people whose intake is less than the EAR.
What are EERs?
Estimated energy requirements, average energy intakes predicted to maintain body weight in healthy individuals. They can be used to calculate the average number of kcalories needed to keep body weight stable.
What are AMDRs?
Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, ranges of intake for the energy-yielding nutrients, expresses as a percentage of total energy intake, that are associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients.
What percentage of kcalories of carbohydrates can an healthy adult have in a health diet?
45-65% can be from carbohydrates.
What percentage of kcalories of fat can an healthy adult have in a health diet?
20-35% from fat.
What percentage of kcalories of protein can an healthy adult have in a health diet?
10-35% from protein.
List the Directive Statements for the Canadian Food Guide for Vegetables and Fruit (3).
1. Eat at least one dark green and one orange vegetable each day.2. Choose vegetables and fruit prepared with little to no added fat, sugar, or salt.3. Have vegetables and fruit more often than juice.
List the Directive Statements for the Canadian Food Guide for Grains and Alternatives (2).
1. Make at least half of your grain products whole grain each day.2. Choose grain products that are lower in fat, sugar, or salt.
List the Directive Statements for the Canadian Food Guide for Milk and Alternatives (2).
1. Drink skim, 1%, or 2% milk each day.2. Select lower fat milk alternative.