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Flashcards in Textbook Quiz Questions Deck (81):
1

Describe the role of fatty acids in the body

they are regulators of inflammation and blood clotting

2

Which is NOT a primary risk factor for heart disease?
a) high blood pressure
b) obesity
c) exercise
d) diabetes

c) exercise

3

Name 3 qualities that fat add to food

texture, flavour, and aroma

4

To prevent the formation of ketone bodies from fatty acid breakdown, which nutrient needs to be present in sufficient quantity?

carbohydrates

5

Describe why saturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

saturated fat decreases LDL receptors on the cell surface, increasing the levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood

6

Of the following dietary lipids, what one is most heart healthy?
a) lard
b) margarine
c) canola oil
d) coconut oil

c) canola oil

7

What is the upper limit of fat, in grams, that should be consumed by a healthy person requiring 2500 kcal per day?

97

8

Alpha-linolenic acid is an example of what fatty acid?

omega-3 fatty acid

9

What substance is released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fat?

bile

10

During triglyceride metabolism, what is the fate of the glycerol backbone?

it is used to produce a small amount of glucose or energy

11

After water soluble nutrients are absorbed, they are carried to the _____ through the ______.

liver, hepatic portal vein

12

What type of cancer is associated with consumption of saturated fat from red meat

increased risk of colon cancer is associated wit the consumption of saturated fat from red meat

13

The lymphatic system absorbs

fat soluble nutrients too large to be absorbed into the portal vein

14

A meal providing 630 calories contains 6g of saturated fats, 1 g of monounsaturated fats, and 2g of polyunsaturated fats. What percentage of energy is supplied by the lipids?

13%

15

Bile, vitamin D, and some hormones such as testosterone and estrogen are derived from..

cholesterol

16

Chylomicrons

-transport lipids, from the food we eat in the body
-are absorbed into the lymphatic system
-are formed by the intestinal mucosal cell

17

Which enzyme promotes the uptake of fatty acids and glycerol by cells to be used as fuel or for storage?

lipoprotein lipase

18

What is needed for cells to take up low-density lipoproteins?

LDL receptors located on the surface of cells

19

What are the precursors for eicosanoid formation?

omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

20

Describe vitamins (4)

Vitamins are only needed in small amounts.
Vitamins are organic molecules.
Vitamins do not provide any energy.
Vitamins are used to regulate body processes.

21

What is the name of a study that feeds a diet devoid of a nutrient until signs of a deficiency appear, and then adds the nutrient back to the diet to a level at which symptoms disappear?

A deletion-repletion study

22

What are the 4 energy yielding substances?

carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and alcohol
(ethanol)

23

What term describes consuming too little or too much of one or more nutrients or energy?

malnutrition

24

Balance

mixing and matching foods in proportions that allow you to get enough of the nutrients you need

25

Which two nutrients each make up 16% of human body weight?

proteins and fats

26

Which nutrient is most abundant in the body?

carbohydrates

27

Choosing broccoli instead of French fries represents what dietary principle?

nutrient density

28

Homeostasis is the sum of all chemical reactions that take place in a living organism. (T/F)

False

29

Describe the role of fatty acids in the body

they are regulators of inflammation and blood clotting

30

Which is NOT a primary risk factor for heart disease?a) high blood pressureb) obesityc) exercise d) diabetes

c) exercise

31

Name 3 qualities that fat add to food

texture, flavour, and aroma

32

To prevent the formation of ketone bodies from fatty acid breakdown, which nutrient needs to be present in sufficient quantity?

carbohydrates

33

Describe why saturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

saturated fat decreases LDL receptors on the cell surface, increasing the levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood

34

Of the following dietary lipids, what one is most heart healthy?a) lardb) margarinec) canola oild) coconut oil

c) canola oil

35

What is the upper limit of fat, in grams, that should be consumed by a healthy person requiring 2500 kcal per day?

97

36

Alpha-linolenic acid is an example of what fatty acid?

omega-3 fatty acid

37

What substance is released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fat?

bile

38

During triglyceride metabolism, what is the fate of the glycerol backbone?

it is used to produce a small amount of glucose or energy

39

After water soluble nutrients are absorbed, they are carried to the _____ through the ______.

liver, hepatic portal vein

40

What type of cancer is associated with consumption of saturated fat from red meat

increased risk of colon cancer is associated wit the consumption of saturated fat from red meat

41

The lymphatic system absorbs

fat soluble nutrients too large to be absorbed into the portal vein

42

A meal providing 630 calories contains 6g of saturated fats, 1 g of monounsaturated fats, and 2g of polyunsaturated fats. What percentage of energy is supplied by the lipids?

13%

43

Bile, vitamin D, and some hormones such as testosterone and estrogen are derived from..

cholesterol

44

Chylomicrons

#NAME?

45

Which enzyme promotes the uptake of fatty acids and glycerol by cells to be used as fuel or for storage?

lipoprotein lipase

46

What is needed for cells to take up low-density lipoproteins?

LDL receptors located on the surface of cells

47

What are the precursors for eicosanoid formation?

omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

48

Describe vitamins (4)

Vitamins are only needed in small amounts.Vitamins are organic molecules.Vitamins do not provide any energy.Vitamins are used to regulate body processes.

49

What is the name of a study that feeds a diet devoid of a nutrient until signs of a deficiency appear, and then adds the nutrient back to the diet to a level at which symptoms disappear?

A deletion-repletion study

50

What are the 4 energy yielding substances?

carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and alcohol (ethanol)

51

What term describes consuming too little or too much of one or more nutrients or energy?

malnutrition

52

Balance

mixing and matching foods in proportions that allow you to get enough of the nutrients you need

53

Which two nutrients each make up 16% of human body weight?

proteins and fats

54

Which nutrient is most abundant in the body?

carbohydrates

55

Choosing broccoli instead of French fries represents what dietary principle?

nutrient density

56

Homeostasis is the sum of all chemical reactions that take place in a living organism. (T/F)

FALSE

57

After water soluble nutrients are absorbed, they are carried to the _____ through the ______.

Liver, hepatic portal vein.

58

What are the roles of essential fatty acids in the body? (2)

They are regulators of inflammation and blood clotting.

59

Amino acids, simple sugars, and water soluble products are absorbed into capillaries that are part of what system?

Hepatic portal circulation.

60

True or False: Decreased risk of breast cancer is associated with the consumption of trans fat.

False.

61

True or False: Increased risk of colon cancer is associated with the consumption of saturated fat from red meat.

True.

62

What does the lymphatic system absorb?

Fat soluble nutrients too large to be absorbed into the portal vein.

63

Alpha-linolenic acid is an example of what kind of fatty acid?

Omega-3 fatty acid.

64

Linoleic acid is an example of what kind of fatty acid?

Omega-6 fatty acid.

65

Oleic acid is what kind of fatty acid?

Omega-9 fatty acid.

66

What substance is released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fat?

Bile.

67

Bile, vitamin D, and some hormones such as testosterone and estrogen are derived from _____.

Cholesterol.

68

______ transport lipids from the food eaten in the body, are absorbed into the lymphatic system, and are formed by the intestinal mucosal cell.

Chylomicrons.

69

What enzyme promotes the uptake of fatty acids and glycerol by cells to be used as fuel or storage?

Lipoprotein lipase.

70

What is needed for cells to take up low density lipoproteins?

LDL receptors located on the surface of cells.

71

The precursors for eicosanoid formation are:

omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

72

What is the name given to the small intestine protrusions that participate in the digestion and absorption of nutrients?

Villi.

73

The oxidation of LDLs: (3)

1. Recruits macrophages with scavenger receptors to the site2. Increases inflammation3. Causes the formation of foam cells

74

A strong correlation exists for colon can and diets that are:

High in animal fats.

75

What are the DRI for fat?

20-35% of total calories.

76

True or false: an obese person will tend to have higher levels of VLDLS in the blood compared to a lean person.

True.

77

True or false: an obese person will tend to have lower levels of VLDLs in the blood compared to a lean person.

False.

78

True or false: high fat diets provide satiety and lead to people eating less.

False, low fat diets tend to provide more satiety than high fat diets.

79

Coconut oil is a rich source of what three fatty acids?

12:0, 14:0, and 16:0.

80

What fatty acid is found in high levels of flax seeds and walnuts?

18:3n-3

81

What accessory organs release their secretions into the GI tract?

The gallbladder, pancreas, and salivary glands.