Flashcards in Chapter 7: The Catholic Reformation and the Wars of Religion Deck (33):
During the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic popes were determined to regain the power they lost due to the emergence of the Protestants. They enacted the following goals and policies:
1. reinvigorating the religious experience.
2. contain the Protestant reformation.
3. define the church practices.
4. ensure strict morals.
5. increase the papal authority.
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed the previous Catholic beliefs, and defied all of Luther's core beliefs.
1. Salvation could be achieved through faith and good works.
2. Bible and Church teachings are equal.
3. There are still seven sacraments.
4. Indulgences and simony should be banned.
5. Latin is the still the main language of the church.
6. Relics and images retain their validity.
7. Papacy is the center of the church.
Leader of the Catholic Jesuits. Vowed that he would spend the rest of his life fighting for the papacy and the Catholic Church.
A religious group led by Ignatius Loyola that was dedicated upon fighting for the Catholic Church. Was founded upon strict discipline and absolute obedience. They wrote the "Spiritual Exercises," which were a set of exercises designed to set up the perfect Catholic life. The Jesuits created many schools for boys and promoted Catholic education, as well as played a major role in the spread Catholicism to the Americas and Asia.
Baroque art was an attempt of the Catholic Church at the Catholic Counter Reformation. Catholics believed art should be used to promote and stimulate the religious experience.
Characteristics of Baroque art
Baroque art often uses tenebrism (the use of dramatic light and dark), dramatic and intense subject matters, not idealized subject matters, and grandiose, ornate details.
Bernini and Caravaggio.
Women and Religious Orders
At this time, women took advantage of the religious orders given by the Church. For example, the Ursuline order provided young girls religious education.
Teresa de Avila
Believed that prayer could be used as an avenue to have a direct relationship with God.
King Philip II of Spain
Became the Holy Roman Empire after his father Charles V abdicated the throne and left a vast empire in his wake. His goals included advancing Spanish power and Catholicism in Europe, and defeat the Ottoman Turks.
Battle of Lepanto
One of Philip's victorious battles that enhanced his title as "Champion of Catholicism."
Defeat of Philip: Netherlands
Philip II inherited 17 provinces of the Catholic Spanish Netherlands, which he threatened to take away some of their personal liberties, which was met with riots. Philip responded by sending more troops and the Duke of Alva to the Spanish Netherlands. The Duke of Alva was harsh and imposed unfair taxes, so 7 of the provinces converted to Calvinism just to spite Philip.
Philip then sent the Duke of Parma, who was more successful and even convinced 10 of the Netherland provinces to be loyal to Spain once again.
However, the 7 Calvinist provinces could not be won back, and demanded independence, and were now known as "Dutch."
Duke of Alva
The duke that Philip sent to the Spanish Netherlands in response to the riots in the Spanish Netherlands. Was incredibly harsh, as he imposed unfair taxes and killed many.
Duke of Parma
Much more successful than the Duke of Alva. He opted for diplomacy rather than brute force, and was able to convince 10 Spanish Netherland provinces to swear their loyalty to Spain once again.
Defeat of Philip: England
Queen Elizabeth of England was appalled at Philip II's aggression, and openly assisted the Dutch. Philip II was pissed at Elizabeth, and sent the Spanish Armada to England in hopes to depose Elizabeth and return England to Catholicism. However, due to England's leadership and quick ships, the Spanish Armada failed.
Consequences of Philip's Fails
Spain experienced a loss of power due to economic and political decline. England and Dutch experienced a period of wealth and prosperity.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
1572. Due to the growing strength of the Huguenots, Charles IX and Catherine de Medici feared the overtaking of Calvinism over Catholicism. On the day of Henry of Navarre and Margaret's wedding, Catholics murdered thousands of Huguenots. Ignited a bloody civil war.
A group of moderate Catholics and Huguenots that realized France would soon collapse if they continued suppressing the Huguenots and no strong monarchy.
Succession of Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)
After Catherine de Medici died and the Duke of Guise was assassinated, Henry of Navarre (a Protestant) took the throne, and became known as King Henry IV. He then converted to Catholicism because he was a politique.
Edict of Nantes
Passed by Henry IV, which stated recognized the equal rights of French Protestants and the toleration of Huguenots.
Causes of the Thirty Years War
1. Religious divides: Protestant Union vs. Catholic League.
2. Political divides: Austrian Habsburg vs. German principalities.
3. International divides: Denmark and Sweden were prepared to fight for Protestant rights, and France (Catholic) allied with the Protestant powers just to ensure Germany would not be too powerful.
1. Bohemian Phase
The 30 Years War started as a religious conflict between Ferdinand II (Catholic League) and Frederick V (Protestant Union). Ferdinand II was initially winning, leaving Bohemia under Catholic control.
2. Danish Phase
The Protestant ruler of Denmark then intervened and joined the Protestant force. However, Albert of Wallenstein (leader of the Catholic forces) crushed the Protestants, to which Ferdinand II then issued the Edict of Restitution.
Edict of Restitution
Issued by Ferdinand II, which stated that all lands lost by the Catholics to the Protestants since 1552 must be restored.
3. Swedish Phase
After the Protestant's mounting losses, they looked to the King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, who was a brilliant military strategist and leader. The Protestants defeated Wallenstein.
The King of Sweden, known for his brilliance in leadership and military strategy. Defeated the Catholics (Wallenstein) in the Swedish Phase of the 30 Years War.
4. French Phase
France intervened after the death of Gustavus Adolphus, which destroyed German commerce, and made the 30 Years War a political war, rather than just religious.
Peace of Westphalia
The agreement made at the conclusion of the 30 Years War.
1. German states could make treaties and diplomacy.
2. France received parts of Alsace and Lorraine.
3. Peace of Augsburg + recognized Calvinism.
4. Recognized independence of the Dutch and neutrality of Switzerland.
Consequences of the Thirty Years War: for Protestants and Catholics
Calvinism was finally recognized as an official religion. The papacy experienced decline in power, as they were majorly ignored throughout the Peace of Westphalia. The signing of the Peace of Westphalia marked the beginning of a period of religious toleration.
Consequences of the Thirty Years War: for German States
The war left Germany's economy and population in ruins. The Peace left Germany in over 300 politically fragmented states, which greatly delayed German Unification. Also suffered long-term commercial growth because of the loss of the Rhine River to the Dutch.
Consequences of the Thirty Years War: for France
France successfully weakened both the Hapsburg empire and the Holy Roman Empire. Received parts of Alsace and Lorraine from the Peace agreement, and finally emerged as the strongest European power at the time.
Consequences of the Thirty Years War: for Military Strategy
Countries now placed great importance on permanent armies, as the size increased greatly after the thirty years war. More complex bureaucracies were also formed, and taxes were increased to pay for these large armies.