Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

6030 - Introduction to Educational Research > Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (52)
Loading flashcards...
1

Characteristics of Experimental Research

The researcher decides on and carries out the specific interventions (or treatments) for one or more groups of subjects

The researcher controls extraneous variables so that they don’t pose alternative explanations for the results of the experiment

The researcher controls subject variables (characteristics) so that they are equivalent in different groups

2

a

1

3

b

2

4

C

3

5

D

4

6

a

1

7

b

2

8

C

3

9

D

4

10

Extraneous variables can be controlled

by eliminating them or by keep them constant

11

Internal Validity

The extent to which the outcomes of an experiment can be attributed to the experimental conditions, and not to other extraneous or confounding variables

12

When alternative explanations of the findings exist, we say that there are threats to _______________________.

the internal validity of the study

13

For threats to internal validity to be “plausible” two conditions must be met: __________________ and ____________________.

The factor must influence the dependent variable
The factor must be different in amount or intensity across levels of the independent variable

14

History

Threat from uncontrolled events that affect the dependent variable

15

Statistical Regression

Threat from change of extreme scores to those closer to the mean. Can be controlled through the use of an equally extreme control group

16

External History

Something that happened during the intervention outside the context of the study

17

Selection (Subject Characteristics)

Threat from the characteristics of participants differing as a function of condition. This threat is much less likely when subjects have been randomly assigned to conditions.

18

Maturation

Threat from changes in participants over time

19

Pretesting

Threat from the effect of taking a pretest

20

Instrumentation

Threat from the unreliability or changes in measurement

21

Treatment Replication

Threat from insufficient replications of the treatment

22

Subject Attrition (Mortality)

Threat from loss of subjects

23

Statistical Regression

Threat from change of extreme scores to those closer to the mean. Can be controlled through the use of an equally extreme control group

24

Diffusion of Treatment

Threat from treatment effect on one group affecting other groups

25

External validity

refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other subjects, interventions, procedures, and settings

26

In the real world, there is generally a negative correlation between ___________________ and ___________; that is, studies strong in ___________ tend to be weak in _______________ and vice versa

internal validity and external validity
internal validity, external validity

27

External validity can be used to refer to generalization across:

Subjects
Situations or Contexts
Time
Interventions or Treatments
Measures

28

Single-Group Posttest-Only Design

A single group gets an intervention followed by a posttest

No comparison is possible in this design

29

Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Design

A single group gets a pretest, then an intervention, and finally a posttest

Posttest scores can be compared to pretest scores

30

Non-Equivalent-Groups Posttest Only Design


Two groups receive posttests, but only one receives the intervention

Several groups receive posttests, but each receives a different intervention