Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

6030 - Introduction to Educational Research > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (62)
Loading flashcards...
1

_________ eliminates the need to search for new knowledge and understanding

Tradition ...
because we simply accept what has always been done as the best or right way.

2

__________ is only as good as the facts that are used.

Logic

3

_______ involves a systematic process of gathering, interpreting, and reporting information.

Research

4

Information is gathered directly from:

individuals, groups, documents, and other sources.

5

Education research

is systematic, disciplined inquiry applied to educational problems and questions.

6

Parsimony

economy in the use of means to an end; especially : economy of explanation in conformity with Occam's razor

7

Research exhibits several characteristics:

Objectivity--in observation, data collection, and reporting of results
Control of personal bias--so that do not influence the research and conclusions
Precision--to provide detailed, specific definitions and descriptions
Parsimony--to provide the least complicated explanation
Tentative conclusions--that are open to change
Verification--of findings through replication
Openness to scrutiny
Logic--to provide meaning

8

Occam's razor

a scientific and philosophic rule that entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily which is interpreted as requiring that the simplest of competing theories be preferred to the more complex or that explanations of unknown phenomena be sought first in terms of known quantities

9

Scientific

systematic, testable, and objective

10

scientific approach

is a logical method of inquiry, not a body of knowledge

11

IES

Institute of Education Sciences

12

Three significant developments in education:

Formation of the Institute of Education Sciences
Formation of What Works Clearinghouse
Publication of Scientific Research in Education

13

The primary purpose of scientific inquiry _________________________________________.

Is to explain natural phenomena and understand the underlying relationships and then, using this information, to predict and influence behavior.

14

Principles of Scientific Inquiry

1. Pose significant questions that can be investigated empirically.
2. Link research to relevant theory.
3. Use methods that permit direct investigation of the question.
4. Provide a coherent, explicit, and evidence-based chain of reasoning.
5. Replicate and generalize across studies.
6. Disclose research to encourage professional scrutiny, critique and peer review.

15

empirical study

is one that gathers evidence (data) that is objective, evidence that is based on observation, measurement, or experience that can be replicated by others.

16

theory

a set or propositions that explain the relationships among observed phenomena

17

_____ must be matched to ______.

Method must be matched to question.

18

Principles of scientific research means _____________________________________.

means the use of rigorous, systematic, and objective methodologies to obtain reliable and valid knowledge.

19

Research requires:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

A. development of logical, evidence-based chain of reasoning
B. methods appropriate to the questions posed
C. observational or experimental designs and instruments that provide reliable and generalizable findings
D. data and analysis adequate to support findings
E. explication of procedures and results clearly and in detail
F. adherence to professional norms of peer review
G. dissemination of findings to contribute to scientific knowledge
H. access to data for reanalysis, replication, and the opportunity to build on findings

20

A researcher's goal is to ____________.

obtain credible answers.

21

Four steps of research are __________________.

question --> method --> results --> conclusions

22

generalizability

use of results in other situations with other individuals

23

chain of reasoning

each step of scientific inquiry is connected to others

24

quantitative tradition

this tradition assumes that phenomena should be studied objectively with the goal of obtaining a single true reality, or at least reality within known probabilities, with an emphasis on measurement, numerical, data, control, and objectivity

25

quantitative

emphasizes numbers, measurements, deductive logic, control, experiments

26

qualitative research

emphasizes natural settings, understanding, verbal narrative, and flexible design

a phenomenological model in which multiple realities are rooted in the subjects' perceptions

27

mixed-methods research

studies using both quantitative and qualitative methods

28

research design

the plan for carrying out a study

29

nonexperimental research

no manipulation of factors that may influence subjects; the investigator has no direct influence on what has been selected to be studied

30

__________ type of research can usually only describe something or uncover relationships between two or more factors

nonexperimental research