Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (62)
_________ eliminates the need to search for new knowledge and understanding
because we simply accept what has always been done as the best or right way.
__________ is only as good as the facts that are used.
_______ involves a systematic process of gathering, interpreting, and reporting information.
Information is gathered directly from:
individuals, groups, documents, and other sources.
is systematic, disciplined inquiry applied to educational problems and questions.
economy in the use of means to an end; especially : economy of explanation in conformity with Occam's razor
Research exhibits several characteristics:
Objectivity--in observation, data collection, and reporting of results
Control of personal bias--so that do not influence the research and conclusions
Precision--to provide detailed, specific definitions and descriptions
Parsimony--to provide the least complicated explanation
Tentative conclusions--that are open to change
Verification--of findings through replication
Openness to scrutiny
Logic--to provide meaning
a scientific and philosophic rule that entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily which is interpreted as requiring that the simplest of competing theories be preferred to the more complex or that explanations of unknown phenomena be sought first in terms of known quantities
systematic, testable, and objective
is a logical method of inquiry, not a body of knowledge
Institute of Education Sciences
Three significant developments in education:
Formation of the Institute of Education Sciences
Formation of What Works Clearinghouse
Publication of Scientific Research in Education
The primary purpose of scientific inquiry _________________________________________.
Is to explain natural phenomena and understand the underlying relationships and then, using this information, to predict and influence behavior.
Principles of Scientific Inquiry
1. Pose significant questions that can be investigated empirically.
2. Link research to relevant theory.
3. Use methods that permit direct investigation of the question.
4. Provide a coherent, explicit, and evidence-based chain of reasoning.
5. Replicate and generalize across studies.
6. Disclose research to encourage professional scrutiny, critique and peer review.
is one that gathers evidence (data) that is objective, evidence that is based on observation, measurement, or experience that can be replicated by others.
a set or propositions that explain the relationships among observed phenomena
_____ must be matched to ______.
Method must be matched to question.
Principles of scientific research means _____________________________________.
means the use of rigorous, systematic, and objective methodologies to obtain reliable and valid knowledge.
A. development of logical, evidence-based chain of reasoning
B. methods appropriate to the questions posed
C. observational or experimental designs and instruments that provide reliable and generalizable findings
D. data and analysis adequate to support findings
E. explication of procedures and results clearly and in detail
F. adherence to professional norms of peer review
G. dissemination of findings to contribute to scientific knowledge
H. access to data for reanalysis, replication, and the opportunity to build on findings
A researcher's goal is to ____________.
obtain credible answers.
Four steps of research are __________________.
question --> method --> results --> conclusions
use of results in other situations with other individuals
chain of reasoning
each step of scientific inquiry is connected to others
this tradition assumes that phenomena should be studied objectively with the goal of obtaining a single true reality, or at least reality within known probabilities, with an emphasis on measurement, numerical, data, control, and objectivity
emphasizes numbers, measurements, deductive logic, control, experiments
emphasizes natural settings, understanding, verbal narrative, and flexible design
a phenomenological model in which multiple realities are rooted in the subjects' perceptions
studies using both quantitative and qualitative methods
the plan for carrying out a study
no manipulation of factors that may influence subjects; the investigator has no direct influence on what has been selected to be studied