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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (18)
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The purpose of the discussion is ________________.

to present an interpretation of the results, the conclusions, and recommendations for further study


A discussion is more than a _________________.

restatement of the results


The discussion interprets _____________________.

the results and puts them in perspective, noting any weaknesses or cautions that the reader should consider


Discussions tell the reader:

Why the results were obtained
What the results mean


The discussion includes answers to the following sorts of questions:

Why did the results turn out as they did?
What may have affected the results?
Are there any limitations that should be noted?
To what extent were hypotheses supported?
What is the meaning of the findings?
How do the results relate to previous research findings?


Interpretation Related to the Problem and/or Hypotheses

Usually there is a restatement of the problem or hypothesis

Followed by some indication of the answer to the problem, or degree of support for the hypothesis

Unexpected results may be cited here, and reasons given for their appearance

You must consider the extent to which researcher bias may have influenced the opinions expressed here


Interpretations Related to Methodology
Quantitative Studies

Quantitative Studies
To what degree does the study have sound internal validity?
For non-experimental studies, what affects did subject selection and measurement (e.g., instrument reliability and validity) play?


Interpretations Based on Theory

When the study is based on theory, the results should be discussed in light of that theory

Are there competing theories, and to what extent can they account for the results found?


Interpretations Related to Methodology
Qualitative Studies

--------------Qualitative Studies-------------
What affect did the researcher’s role in gathering and analyzing the data play in the results found


Interpretations Related to Methodology
Selection of Participants

------------Selection of Participants------------
Volunteer and convenience samples do not represent their populations well


Interpretations Related to Methodology
Quantitative and Mixed-Methods Studies

Quantitative and Mixed-Methods Studies
-------------Measuring Variables------
Validity and reliability of instruments
Procedures for administering instruments
Biases in observers or interviewers
Participant response set or faking in non-cognitive measures
Inappropriate norms used in scoring

Was the intervention carried our as planned (treatment integrity)?
Were those who presented the intervention sufficiently trained and motivated to carry it out as planned (implementation effects)?



are summary statements of the results as they pertain to the research problem


Remember, without additional analyses one cannot __________________________________.

generalize results from the entire sample to every sub-group the sample contains


Limitation examples

subject characteristics
features of the design
the particular setting in which the research was carried out
Contextual Characteristics
When the Research Is Conducted


Ecological Validity

How well will the results of the study generalize to new settings, particularly the real world if the study was conducted in a laboratory setting


Research journals further research recommendations tend to be ______________.



Practitioner journals further research recommendations tend to be ______________.

practice related


Criteria for Evaluating Discussion and Conclusion Sections

The results should be interpreted
Conclusions should answer research problems

Conclusions should be limited by participant characteristics and selection

Conclusions should be limited by the nature of interventions and measures

Statistical significance should not be confused with practical significance

Failure to show statistical significance does not necessarily mean that there is no relationship or difference

Limitations of findings should be reasonable
Recommendations and implications should be specific