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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (76)
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______________ cannot be eliminated (through design), but must be __________ and ____________

The researcher’s biases cannot be eliminated (through design), but must be acknowledged and minimized


___________ is critical in providing an understanding of the phenomenon under investigation



Natural Setting

Behavior is studied as it naturally occurs

There is no intervention

Often described as “field research”


Direct Data Collection

The researcher is the instrument

Researchers spend a considerable amount of time interacting with participants, settings, and documents


Rich Narrative Descriptions

Descriptions are in the form of words and pictures rather than numbers

The descriptions, often lengthy, capture what has been observed in the same form in which it occurred naturally


Process Orientation

An emphasis on the process that produced behavior, rather than on the products and outcomes

There is a focus on the reasons that the outcomes occurred


Characteristics of Qualitative Research

Natural Setting
Direct Data Collection
Rich Narrative Descriptions
Process Orientation
Inductive Data Analysis
Participant Perspectives
Socially Constructed Meaning
Emergent Research Design


Inductive Data Analysis

There are no “hypotheses” at the outset of a study to be proved or disproved; instead, data are gathered first and as analysis begins, emerge that lead to hypotheses that may then be confirmed or disconfirmed through by looking through additional data.

Qualitative researchers feel that hypotheses at the outset of a study limit the researcher, causing them to miss other important facets of the data


Participant Perspectives

Reality is reconstructed for the participant’s perspective, rather than the researcher’s perspective or some external neutral perspective
The meaning of events to the participant is a central focus


Socially Constructed Meaning

Participants actively construct their own reality (constructivist perspective or interpretivism)
Knowledge is built on participants’ lived experiences and situation-specific interactions with others


Emergent Research Design

Qualitative researchers begin their studies with some idea what data will be collected and the procedures that will be employed, but they give a full account of the methods retrospectively, after all the data have been collected.

The design is emergent in that it remains flexible and evolves during the study.


Types of Qualitative Research

Ethnographic Studies
Case Studies
Phenomenological Studies
Grounded Theory Studies
Critical Studies


Ethnographic Studies

An in-depth description and interpretation of cultural patterns and meanings within a culture or social group

Involves extensive or long-term interaction with the cultural or social group


Ethnographic Studies
(Data collection methods)

Data Collection Methods:
Document and Artifact Analysis


______________ studies emphasize culture

ethnographic studies


__________________ research begins by establishing the foreshadowed questions (the initial problem statement).

Ethnographic research


Case Studies

An in-depth analysis of one or more events, settings, programs, social groups, communities, individuals, or other “bounded systems”


Because the case study typically involves a single case, __________________ is either limited or non-existent



Phenomenological Studies

Describes and interprets the experiences of participants in order to understand the “essence” of the experience as it is perceived by the participants

Focuses on the consciousness of human experience


Focuses on the consciousness of human experience attempts to ___________

Attempts to distill the essential or invariant structure in the meanings given by the participants


Grounded Theory Studies

Discovers or generates theory that explains central phenomenon from the data


In grounded theory studies, the theory is ____________.

The theory is a set of propositions or a schema that explains the data

The theory is grounded in the data, which are collected in the field and therefore embedded within a natural context


__________________ study
Research questions are focused on what happened to individuals, why they believe it happened as it did, and what it means to them

Grounded Theory Studies


_______________ study
The research problem is: What is the essential meaning or the event, episode, or interaction?

Phenomenological Studies


___________________ study
The research question identifies the case and begins with a general question; it is often followed by several sub-questions

case studies


Critical Studies

The researcher serves as an advocate to respond to the themes and issues of marginalized individuals and groups

Focused on systems of power and control, privilege, inequality, dominance, and influence based on race, gender, and socioeconomic class


Purposeful samples

participants, documents, and artifacts are identified and used in qualitative research

Key informants are identified and used in groups when all cannot be studied

Sites and documents are selected purposefully to provide rich data


Qualitative research uses ____________ type of data collection.

purposeful samples


Ethnographic case study uses ____________ type of data collection.

internal sampling


A case study uses ____________ type of data collection.

a group of participants (an identified group)

The group is a collection of individuals who interact with each other, share the same space, and identify with each other

Larger groups are sometimes preferred, as the researcher’s presence is less likely to alter the behavior of larger groups