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6030 - Introduction to Educational Research > Chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (68)
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1

Measurement

is the assignment of numbers to indicate different values of a variable.

2

Measures

are specific techniques or instruments used for measurement.

3

Evaluation

is the procedures for collecting information and using information to make decisions. Evaluation involves measurement, but may also involve sampling, design, and literature in the process of coming to a decision.

4

The purpose of measurement is _________________________________.

to obtain information about the variables that are being studied. It provides a systematic procedure for recording observations, performance, or other responses of subjects

5

Operational Definitions

Definitions of variables that specify how they were measured

6

Assessment

1. assess is to measure
2. an assessment is synonymous with an evaluation

7

Nominal (Classificatory) Scale

A set of mutually exclusive categories with no order implied.

8

Ordinal Scale

A set of rank-ordered categories.

9

Interval Scale

Equal intervals between numbers

10

Ratio Scale

Numbers expressed as ratios

11

What is the following an example of?
The operators equal and not equal are allowed.

example of nominal scale

12

What is the following an example of?
The operators greater than, less than, equal, and not equal (and all their combinations) are allowed.

example of ordinal scale

13

What is the following an example of?
Fahrenheit and Celsius

example of interval scale

14

What is the following an example of?
Length and Kelvin temperature

example of ratio scale

15

Statistics

Mathematical procedures used to summarize and analyze data.

16

Descriptive Statistics

Indices that summarize characteristics of sample data.

17

Statistics

describe sample data

18

Parameters

describe population data

19

Frequency Distribution

Data organized into scores and the frequency with which each score occurred

20

Frequency Polygon

A line graph with frequency along the y-axis and score along the x-axis.

21

Histogram

A bar graph with the same characteristics as a frequency polygon

22

Normal Distribution

A frequency distribution with a characteristic bell shape. It is symmetrical.

23

Skewed Distribution

A non-symmetric distribution.

24

positively skewed

Occurs when most of the scores are at the low end of the distribution

25

negatively skewed

Occurs when most of the scores are at the high end of the distribution

26

Outliers

Atypical scores that are either extremely high or low

27

Histogram

Histograms use bars to represent frequency. The bars touch, and histograms are used for interval and ratio independent variables.

28

Measures of Central Tendency

Statistics that indicate the average or typical score in a distribution.

29

Mode

The most frequently occurring score or scores.

30

Median

The score (or potential score) at the 50 percentile. It splits the distribution with respect to frequency.