Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (53)
Information Process Theory focuses on?
how children memories develop through the processes of using, remembering and learning info from their environment
Parallel Distribution Theory suggests
information is processed through different areas of the brain, making a web of memories
How do we enhance working memory?
rehearsal and repetition
How do we enhance long term memory?
space rehearsal and distributed practice
What are the two ways to encode
automatic encoding and effortful encoding
what is sensory memory
memory involving detailed, brief sensory images or sounds retained for a brief period of time
Who is George Sperling
He first identified sensory memory by showing 3 rows of 4 random letters for a brief period, then asked participants to write down all that they could remember
How many pieces of info does working memory hold
3 different types of encoding
Phonological, Visual and Semantic
the more we can elaborate or expand on the meaning and make the information personally relevant, the better we remember it
techniques used to increase meaningfulness of information
How can memory span number be improved?
3 factors that influence information stored in long term memory
attention, encoding and inaccessibility
Explain the types of long term memories and the categories
Explicit:Semantic and Episodic. Implicit: Priming Procedural and Classically Conditioned
What is the difference between explicit and implicit
Explicit is conscious, implicit in unconscious
What is procedural memory?
motor skills and habits such as how to drive your car
What is priming
earlier exposure facilitates retrieval such as heightened fears after reading a scary novel
What does craik and lock harts levels of processing suggest?
memory depends on how deeply we process the information
physical characteristics of words such as capitals or lowercase are not remembered well
remembered much better such as the meaning of words or symbolic significance
How do we retrieve memories?
mentally search brain for stored information and if it is located then it is brought back into working memory
What are retrieval cues
words sites or other stimuli that trigger a memory
Context effects are
how we can remember things better where we first learned them
Recognition tasks are easier than recall tasks because of
priming. Seeing info on a test that you saw in studying is easier than recalling it alone
What is state dependent memory
memory retrieval by being in the same state of mind in which you encoded the memory
detailed and near permanent memories of emotionally significant events or of the circumstances surrounding the moment we learned about in that event
3 reasons we forget
encoding failure, storage failure and retrieval failure
Memory traces fade over time but leave a memory trace. Based on the research by Ebbinghaus, who was the first to scientifically study memory. Relearning is much faster.
Ebbinghaus researched what theory