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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (53)
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1

Information Process Theory focuses on?

how children memories develop through the processes of using, remembering and learning info from their environment

2

Parallel Distribution Theory suggests

information is processed through different areas of the brain, making a web of memories

3

How do we enhance working memory?

rehearsal and repetition

4

How do we enhance long term memory?

space rehearsal and distributed practice

5

What are the two ways to encode

automatic encoding and effortful encoding

6

what is sensory memory

memory involving detailed, brief sensory images or sounds retained for a brief period of time

7

Who is George Sperling

He first identified sensory memory by showing 3 rows of 4 random letters for a brief period, then asked participants to write down all that they could remember

8

How many pieces of info does working memory hold

5-9

9

3 different types of encoding

Phonological, Visual and Semantic

10

Explain elaboration

the more we can elaborate or expand on the meaning and make the information personally relevant, the better we remember it

11

Mnemonic

techniques used to increase meaningfulness of information

12

How can memory span number be improved?

chunking

13

3 factors that influence information stored in long term memory

attention, encoding and inaccessibility

14

Explain the types of long term memories and the categories

Explicit:Semantic and Episodic. Implicit: Priming Procedural and Classically Conditioned

15

What is the difference between explicit and implicit

Explicit is conscious, implicit in unconscious

16

What is procedural memory?

motor skills and habits such as how to drive your car

17

What is priming

earlier exposure facilitates retrieval such as heightened fears after reading a scary novel

18

What does craik and lock harts levels of processing suggest?

memory depends on how deeply we process the information

19

shallow processing

physical characteristics of words such as capitals or lowercase are not remembered well

20

deep processing

remembered much better such as the meaning of words or symbolic significance

21

How do we retrieve memories?

mentally search brain for stored information and if it is located then it is brought back into working memory

22

What are retrieval cues

words sites or other stimuli that trigger a memory

23

Context effects are

how we can remember things better where we first learned them

24

Recognition tasks are easier than recall tasks because of

priming. Seeing info on a test that you saw in studying is easier than recalling it alone

25

What is state dependent memory

memory retrieval by being in the same state of mind in which you encoded the memory

26

flashbulb memory

detailed and near permanent memories of emotionally significant events or of the circumstances surrounding the moment we learned about in that event

27

3 reasons we forget

encoding failure, storage failure and retrieval failure

28

Decay Theory

Memory traces fade over time but leave a memory trace. Based on the research by Ebbinghaus, who was the first to scientifically study memory. Relearning is much faster.

29

Ebbinghaus researched what theory

Decay Theory

30

What is a memory trace

Physical trace of memory in the brain, may be faded