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1

Two core beliefs of science:

The universe operates according to certain natural laws. Such laws are discoverable and testable

2

The scientific method uses:

Inductive and deductive reasoning

3

Explain the scientific method

Deductive reasoning is using general principles to apply to a specific situation. Subject to thinkers biases.

Inductive reasoning uses specific examples to make general conclusions.

4

Inductive reasoning is based on....

empirical (objectively testable) observations that lead to development of theories

5

Ideas about laws that govern phenomena is a description of...?

Inductive Reasoning

6

Inductive Reasoning uses what the most?

hypothetico-deductive reasoning

7

Inductive Reasoning begin with an educated guess and design controlled observations to support or invalidate their

Hypotheses

8

Two goals of psychological research

To isolate factors that affect behaviour and to examine how those factors interact with each other. Also to deal with issues with values, morality and personal preference and tries to provide society with useful info for practical application.

9

The term that describes using the scientific method to study human behaviour and mental processes is....

Psychology

10

Define Pseudo-psychology

No use of the scientific method to study human behaviour and mental processes.

11

2 examples of pseudo psychology:

Parapsychology and astrology

12

Identify the 6 steps to the scientific method

1) Identify questions of interest 2) develop a testable hypothesis 3) Select a research method, choose participants 4) analyze the data and accept or reject hypothesis 5)seek scientific review, publish and replicate 6) Build a theory

13

Define a variable

a condition, event or situation that is of interest or may have an influence on your study.

14

What are the two names of the two types of variables?

An independent variable and a dependent variable

15

Explain the two types of variables

IV: the variable that you manipulate. A condition or event that is thought to be a factor in chaining another condition or event (ie. Sleep deprivation). DV: is the variable that you measure (or the variable that is changed by the IV (behaviour)

16

What is an extraneous variable (EV)

something that could somehow effect the relationship between the IV and DV such as drug intake, personality, gender, age

17

What is a Confounding Variable

not only can effect results but can lead to changes in one of the variable

18

In addition to identifying and defining the variable, a researcher must also....?

Operationalize them

19

What defines operationalize? Give any example

how we (the researcher) decide to measure our variables. For example how would you measure love? Increase heart rate, temperature, etc.

20

Define Participants

Those who participate in your study

21

Population

the entire group that is of interest to researchers (not all will participate in the study)

22

Sample

A portion or subset of any population that is selected for the study

23

Random Selection

Choosing participants in such a way that everybody in a population of interest has an equal chance of participating in the study

24

What is the benefit of random selection?

minimizes the chance of only having participants who confirm your hypothesis

25

Sampling Bias

Choosing a sample that does not represent your population

26

What are the two types of research?

Descriptive and Experimental

27

What is descriptive research? (3 pts)

research method used to observe and describe behaviour. It is used to determine the existence of a relationship between the variables. It does not specify causation between variables.

28

What is experimental research (2 pts)

To demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between the variables. It manipulates at least one variable to examine change in another

29

What are three types of descriptive research?

Case study, Naturalistic Observation and Surveys

30

What is a case study?

An intensive study of 1 or 2 people