Motivation Flashcards Preview

Psych, Natural Science > Motivation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motivation Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

Motivation

an internal state or condition that directs behaviour

2

Instinct theory

People are motivated by their biological instincts

3

instincts

inborn behavioural tendencies activated by stimuli in our environments

4

Drive reduction theory

belief that physiological need creates an aroused state that drive us to reduce that need to gain equilibrium and homeostasis

5

Arousal theory

we are motivated to pursue an optimum level of stimulation

6

Yerkes-dodson law

performance on task is best when the arousal level is optimal for that specific task

7

Incentive Theory

Involves intrinsic motivation and extrinsic

8

Intrinsic motivations

motivated by internal factors and engaging in a behaviour simply for the satisfaction that is part of doing

9

Primary incentives

rewards or punishments that are innate

10

Secondary incentives

viewed as rewarding as a result of learning about their association with other events such as grades

11

Incentive Salience

causes motivational power

12

Pleasure in the moment produces

opiates in the brain as well as dopamine

13

Dopamine Pathway

Ventral Tegmental Area to Nucleus Accumbens to Prefrontal Cortex

14

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs (bottom up)

Physiological Needs - Safety - Love - Esteem - Self Actualization

15

Cues to eat:

Empty stomach and low blood glucose levels may stimulate the lateral hypothalamus to motivate us to eat while at the same time inhibiting satisfaction signals from the ventromedial region of the hypothalamus

16

Cues to stop eating

stretch receptors are activated and blood glucose levels reached a certain level, along with high levels of leptin, making the VMH become active and inhibit the LH

17

Dual Centre Theory of Motivation

Activity in one area serves to inhibit the area that serves the opposite function

18

Anorexia Nervosa

Preoccupied with being or becoming fat, distorted body image

19

Treatments for anorexia nervosa

cognitive behavioural therapy, hospitalization, family therapy

20

Bulimia Nervosa

Cycle of binging and purging. Exercise excessively, most do not appear underweight

21

Treatment of bulimia

behavioural modification, cognitive therapy, antidepressant drugs

22

5 phases of sex

Desire phase, Excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasm phase, resolution phase

23

Two sex hormones in the brain

testosterone and estrogen

24

Excitement phase of sex activates (5)

the hypothalamus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and ventral segmental area

25

Orgasm phase activates

cerebellum, ventral tegmental area

26

Male fetus masculinization

DHT (dihydrotestosterone) masculinizes the brain after a protein binds to estrogen in the hypothalamus

27

Evolutionary theory of sexuality

gender differences have evolved to maximize the odds of survival

28

Causes of sexual orientation

prenatal expose to hormones, differin sizes of the anterior hypothalamus

29

Desire PhaseL Sexual Aversion Disorder

low desire, sex viewed as unpleasant and repulsice

30

Excitement Phase: Female Sexual Arousal Disorder/Erectile Disorder

cannot attain or maintain proper lubrication/erection