Flashcards in Chapter 8: Canning, Goderich and Wellington Deck (28):
When did George Canning become Prime Minister?
Upon Liverpool's resignation in April 1827.
Why did half the Cabinet, including Wellington and Peel refuse to serve under Canning?
He was regarded as too advanced in his ideas, too flamboyant and some doubted whether he could be trusted. He also supported Catholic Emancipation which was an issue to many- but not Peel.
What was the Whig opinion of Canning?
They saw him as a 'natural ally'- he was liberal minded and flexible.
What was George IV's opinion of Canning?
He accepted Canning as he could command the Commons and was popular in the country.
What little did Canning achieve as Prime Minister?
Catholic Emancipation, upon the insistence of George IV remained an 'open' question and Canning's attempt at reforming the Corn Laws was prevented by Wellington.
Who replaced Canning in August 1827 when he died?
What was the general opinion of Goderich?
He was impotent in his role and showed few qualities of leadership. George IV was reluctant to accept him
When did Goderich resign?
Four months after he became Prime Minister. December 1827.
When did Wellington become Prime Minister?
What was one of Wellington's flaws that soon became apparent?
He was not as adept at holding together his cabinet as Liverpool had been.
Who was, once again, appinted as Home Secretary and leader of the Commons?
Peel in 1828
Why were the Ultra Tories at ill with Wellington?
Wellington excluded Lord Eldon, the previous Lord Chancellor.
What was the result of Wellington's clumsy leadership?
He lost the confidence of several groups in Parliament and had no steady majority in the Commons. E.g he accepted the resignation of Huskisson, one of his strongest ministers, causing several other resignations and he oftn showed a lack of judgement in his decisions.
How long was Liverpool in government for without a break?
Almost fifteen years, causing unfamiliar anxieties for the Tory party.
What of Liverpool's expertise was missed?
His expertise in holding together his precocious Cabinet, full of diverse and strong personalities. Without Liverpool's skillful leadership, divisions appeared among the Tory hierarchy and the party began to disintegrate.
What was the pro-Corn Law faction?
Agriculturalists who were concerned Huskisson's proposal of a siding scale would not offer them the protection for their home-grown produce they saw as their right.
Who were the first group of Tories?
Huskisson among them. They recognised the importance of industrial growth and the need to encourage its expansion through free trade measures.
Who were the traditional Tories?
They considered economic and administrative reform, but would not consider anything that disturbed the integrity of the constitution or the preservation of Church and state, such as Catholic Emancipation and parliamentary reform.
Who were the Ultra Tories?
An extreme verision of Traditional Tories, intolerant of any measure that would disturb their patrimony, and were prepared to vote themselves out of office to uphld their rigid anti-reform principles.
What tactical voting did the Ultra Tories try regarding the Test and Corporations Acts in 1828?
They voted for them as they realised they were swimming against the tide, but believed that once repealed, the Protestant Dissenters would turn against the Catholics in sufficient numbers and dissuade the Government from pursuing emancipation. However, by this stage emancipation was unstoppable.
When was the emancipation act passed and what effect did this have on the Tory party?
1829. This divided the Tory party further. It also led to the final break yp of Pitt's coalution.
When did George IV die?
1830. William IV was next on the throne, prompting a general election.
What were the results of the 1830 general election?
Favoured the Whigs and the Canningite Tories, but left Wellington in offie.
What options did Wellington have after the 1830 general election?
He had already cut adrift Huskissn and the liberal minded Tories with his refusal to contemplate parliamentary reform in 1828 but there are suggestions he was to invite him bck into Cabinet but he died.
What did Wellington's government look like after the 1830 general election?
Weak and indecisive as outbrekas of violence spread across England in response to a bleak harvest and an economic recession.
What was the position of reform within England after the 1830 election?
Renewed interest in Parliamentary reform, supported by the Whigs.
What mistake did Wellington make in November 1830?
England had a renewed nterest in Parliamentary reform and Wellington made a major reactionary speech against reform, he praised the existing system as near-perfect and this lost him support. His supporters believed he should have produced a moderate reform, instead of playing into the hands of the opposition, whose chance of inroducing a more radical parliamentary reform had been enhanced.