Chapter 8 - Skeletal System (A) - Axial Skeleton Flashcards Preview

BIOL 110 > Chapter 8 - Skeletal System (A) - Axial Skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Skeletal System (A) - Axial Skeleton Deck (53):
1

How many bones are in the human skeleton?

206

2

name the 2 divisions of the skeletal system

axial skeleton --> bones that lie around the longitudinal axis of the body
appendicular skeleton --> bones of the upper and lower limbs and bones of the griddles

3

long bones

greater in length than width

4

short bones

cube shaped

5

flat bones

thin

6

irregular bones

complex shapes (vertebra)

7

what are the 4 categories of bone markings?

1. articulating surfaces
2. depressions
3. projections
4. openings

8

Condyle
-bone marking category and description

articulating surface
-large, smooth, rounded, oval structure

9

Facet
-bone marking category and description

articulating surface
-small, flat, shallow surface

10

Head (bone marking)
--bone marking category and description

articulating surface
-prominent, rounded epiphysis

11

Alveolus
-bone marking category and description

Depression
-deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible

12

Fossa
-bone marking category and description

Depression
-flattened or shallow depression

13

Sulcus
-bone marking category and description

Depression
-narrow groove

14

What are projections used for?

tendon and ligament attachment

15

Crest
-bone marking category and description

Projection
-narrow, prominent, ridge like projection

16

Epicondyle
-bone marking category and description

Projection
-projection adjacent to a condyle

17

Line
-bone marking category and description

Projection
-low ridge

18

Process
-bone marking category and description

Projection
-Any marked bony prominence

19

Ramus
-bone marking category and description

Projection
-angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure

20

Spine (bone marking)
-bone marking category and description

Projection
pointed, slender process

21

Trochanter
-bone marking category and description

Projection
-massive, rough projection found only on femur

22

Tubercle
-bone marking category and description

Projection
small, round projection

23

Tuberosity
-bone marking category and description

Projection
-large, rough projection

24

Canal
-bone marking category and description

Opening
passageway through a bone

25

Fissure
-bone marking category and description

opening
-narrow, slitlike opening through bone

26

Foramen
-bone marking category and description

opening
-rounded passageway through a bone

27

Meatus
-bone marking category and description

Opening
-passageway through a bone

28

Sinus
-bone marking category and description

cavity or hollow space in a bone

29

How many bones are in the axial skeleton?

80

30

The skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum make up which part of the skeleton?

Axial

31

the purpose of the skull includes..

-protect and support brain
-provides framework for muscle attachment

32

The skull is composed of what 3 types of structures?

8 cranial bones
15 facial
Fontanels

33

List the 8 cranial bones of the skull

sphenoid, parietal (2), temporal (2), Occipital, Ethmoid, Frontal

34

Name the 15 facial bones of the skull

mandible, maxilla (2), vomer, nasal bones (2), zygomatic bones (2), Lacrimal bones (2), Palatine bones (2), Inferior nasal conchae (2), hyoid bone

35

What is the only bone in the human body that does not articulate with another bone

Hyoid bone

36

What are Fontanels

soft, mesenchyme filled space between cranial bones of babies.
-form into suture joints of adults

37

What exits from the intervertebral foremen?

spinal nerves

38

_______________ is found between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae.

fibrocartilage intervertebral disks

39

The lordosis region referes to what?

-cervical and lumbar regions of the spine
-have convex curvature

40

what areas of the spinal curve are concave? What are these regions called?

thoracic and sacral regions
Kyphosis.

41

name 3 severe conditions of the spine that result due to exaggeration of the normal spinal curve.

-scoliosis (spine curves left or right)
-kyphosis (hunch back)
-lordosis (arched back)

42

The cervical vertebrae form the _______.

neck

43

how many cervical vertebrae are there?

Seven.
C1 - atlas
C2 - axis (pivots)
C3-C7

44

The thoracic vertebrae articulate with the _____.

ribs

45

how many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

46

What is the function and shape of the lumbar vertebrae?

support lower back
stouter in shape

47

how many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

48

the sacrum is composed of...

5 fused vertebrae (by age 30)

49

the coccyx is composed of...

fusion of 4 vertebrae

50

what is the function of the thoracic cage? (3)

-enclose and protect organs
-support upper limbs
-assists in breathing

51

what structures for the thoracic cage?

sternum
ribs
costal cartilage

52

what are true ribs?

attached "directly" to sternum
upper 7 ribs

53

what are false ribs?

attach indirectly to sternum (at angle), or do not attache at all (floating ribs)