Chapter 9: Work, Occupations, and the Economy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Work, Occupations, and the Economy Deck (71)
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1

the ______ own the means of production

bourgeoisie

2

the _____ sell their labour for a wage

proletariats

3

the physical, intellectual, and social resources that a society uses to produce wealth

means of production

4

Marx used this term to reference the raw materials needed to make commodities that could be sold on the market

means of production

5

owners exploit workers by extracting ______ from labour

surplus value

6

when workers are exploited they are _______ from their product, labour, themselves and others

alienated

7

Marx's 4 types of alienation

1. alienation from the product of labour
2. alienation from the process
3. alienation from themselves
4. alienation from other workers

8

Weber saw the quest for _________ as the defining feature of society

rationalization

9

process of replacing decisions, ideas and actions based on traditions or emotions with practicality, calculations, and reason

rationalization

10

Bureaucratic organizations are an exemplary from of

rationalization

11

are defined by a rigid, prescribed, and hierarchical enviro

bureaucratic workplaces

12

what's an example of a bureaucratic organization

university

13

Durkheim described pre-industrial economies as having a _________, while industrial ones have _______

mechanical solidarity
organic solidarity

14

social cohesion based on shared values and a relatively undifferentiated division of labour

mechanical solidarity

15

modern working arrangement gave rise to

anomie

16

describes a sense of normlessness, a condition where there is a breakdown of social values and norms

anomie

17

new social cohesion where there is a breakdown of social values and norms

organic solidarity

18

Durkheim was a

structural functionalist

19

believed that any society depends on presence of necessary institutions, social norms, and the processes that contribute to functioning of the social system

Durkheim

20

saw potential for new forms of associations to protect workers from abuse

Durkheim

21

solidarity through likeness, low division of labour, strong collective conscience

mechanical solidarity

22

solidarity through difference, high division of labour (specialization), weak collective conscience, restitutive law

organic solidarity

23

explains the structural effects of the capitalist org of labour on workers as they struggle for autonomy and control over their labour and skills

labour process theory

24

seeks to increase control of labour process by automating skills and dividing workers and production into small, specialized tasks

scientific management

25

scientific management seeks to increase control of labour process by ________ skills and _______ workers and production into specialized tasks

automating
dividing

26

Braverman critique of scientific management states that capitalist production alienates workers through

deskilling

27

where workers gradually lose skills while doing a job

deskilling

28

workers don't passively submit to will of managers, they actively participate in process of negotiation, what Burowoy calls

making out

29

used to describe an occupation that has several specific traits

profession

30

have attempted to model themselves after established professions to increase their prestige and pay (3)

- occupations
- semi-professions
- para-professions