Chapter Five : Part One Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Five : Part One Deck (27):
1

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

sensation

2

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

perception

3

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

bottom-up processing

4

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

top-down processing

5

complete sensation but incomplete perception; able to sense visual information, yet unable to recognize it

prosopagnosia

6

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

psychophysics

7

the minimum stimulation needed t detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

absolute threshold

8

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"); assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue

signal detection theory

9

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

subliminal

10

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

priming

11

the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time; we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference

difference threshold

12

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage, rather than a constant amount

Weber's Law

13

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

sensory adaptation

14

conversion of one form of energy into another; in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret

transduction

15

the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next; electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

wavelength

16

the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names - red, orange yellow, green, blue, purple, etc.

hue

17

the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude

intensity

18

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

pupil

19

a ring of muscles tissue that forms the colored portion of the eyes around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

iris

20

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina

lens

21

the process by which the eye's lens change shape to focus near or far objects in the retina

accommodation

22

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

retina

23

the sharpness of vison

acuity

24

a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina

nearsightedness

25

a condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina

farsightedness

26

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

rods

27

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions; detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations

cones