Chapter Two : Part One Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Two : Part One Deck (36):
1

a popular but ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits

phrenology

2

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

biological psychology

3

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

neuron

4

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

dendrite

5

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

axon

6

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing he fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

myelin sheath

7

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon, the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane

action potential

8

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

threshold

9

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron, the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft

synapse

10

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons, when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

neurotransmitters

11

a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction

acetylcholine (ach)

12

influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

dopamine

13

affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

serotonin

14

"morphine within" natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

endorphins

15

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

nervous system

16

the brain and the spinal chord

central nervous system (CNS)

17

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

18

neural "cables" containing many axons, these bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

nerves

19

neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system

sensory neurons

20

neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

motor neurons

21

central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

interneurons

22

the division of peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles, also called the skeletal nervous system

somatic nervous system

23

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs, its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division clams

autonomic nervous system

24

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

sympathetic nervous system

25

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

parasympathetic nervous system

26

a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

reflex

27

tissue destruction, a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

lesion

28

interconnected neural cells, with experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain resulsts

neural networks

29

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

endocrine system

30

chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another

hormones

31

a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys, the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times stress

adrenal glands

32

the endocrine system's most influential gland, under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

pituitary gland

33

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface, these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

electroencephalogram (EEG)

34

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

position emission tomography (PET)

35

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain; show brain anatomy

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

36

a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans; show brain fuction

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)