Chapter Nine : Part One Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Nine : Part One Deck (33):
1

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

flashbulb memory

2

the processing of information into the memory system

encoding

3

the retention of encoded information over time

storage

4

the process of getting information out of memory storage

retrieval

5

the immediate, very brief, recording of sensory information in the memory system

sensory memory

6

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

short-term memory

7

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, kills, and experience

long-term memory

8

a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from King-term memory

working memory

9

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of week learned information, such as word meanings

automatic processing

10

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

effortful processing

11

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

rehearsal

12

A the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

spacing effect

13

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

serial position effect

14

the encoding of picture images

visual encoding

15

the encoding of sound, especially sound of words

acoustic encoding

16

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

semantic encoding

17

especially good recall for information we can relate to ourselves

self-reference effect

18

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

imagery

19

recalling the high points while forgetting the mundane moments

rosy retrospection

20

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

mnemonics

21

orators imagined themselves icing through a familiar series of locations, associate each place with a visual representation of the to-be-remembered topic; while speaking, they would mentally revisit each location and retrieve the associated image

method of loci

22

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

chunking

23

composed of a few broad concepts divided no subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

hierarchies

24

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

memory

25

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasing no more than a few tenths of a second

iconic memory

26

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

echoic memory

27

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

long-term potentiation (LTP)

28

the loss of memory

amesia

29

retention independent of conscious recollection

implicit memory

30

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

explicit memory

31

explicit memories for facts and episodes are process in this part of the brain; then fed to other brain regions for storage

hippocampus

32

this part of the brain plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories

cerebellum

33

he called the recall capacity for short-term memory the Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two

George Miller