Chapter Four - Attention Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Four - Attention Deck (92):
1

What is attention?

-ability to focus on specific stimuli/locations in environment

2

What is selective attention?

attending to one thing while ignoring others

3

What is divided attention?

paying attention to more than one thing at a time

4

What is a distraction?

-one stimulus interfering with the processing of another stimulus

5

What is attentional capture?

rapid shifting of attention usually caused by a stimulus (loud noise, bright light, sudden movement)

6

Why is selective attention an evolutionary advantage?

-wouldn't be able to function well if we had to focus on every stimui

7

What is the Colin Cherry experiment?

-one message presented in left ear, another in right ear
-participant shadows one message to ensure he is attending to that message

8

What is the results of the dichotic listening experiment?

-participants could not report content of message in unattended ear

9

What is the cocktail effect?

-ability to focus on one stimulus and filter out others

10

In dichotic listening, is the info in unattended ear being processed?

-yes
-change in gender + tone is noticed

11

What are 3 models of selective attention?

1. Early selection model (Broadbent)
2. Intermediate selection model (Tresiman's Attenuation Theory)
3. Late selection model (McKay)

12

When does filtering happen in the Broadbent's model?

-filters message before incoming info is analyzed for meaning

13

what are the 5 components of Broadbent's model?

1. messages
2. sensory memory
3. filter
4. detector
5. to memory

14

What does sensory memory do? (Broadbent)

-holds all incoming info
-transfers all info to next stage

15

What does the filter do? (Broadbent)

-identifies attended message based on physical characteristics
-passes on attended message

16

What does the detector do? (Broadbent)

-processes all info to determine higher-level characteristics of the message

17

What is Broadbent's model also referred to?

bottleneck model

18

Does the filter slow down the flow of info in the Broadbent model?

-no, it just restricts information flow

19

What are 3 shortcomings/challenges to Broadbent's model?

1. we should not be conscious of unattended msgs
2. participants name gets through
3. participants can shadow meaningful msgs that switch from one ear to another

20

What is Treisman's Attenuation Theory?

-intermediate-selection model
-attended message can be separated from unattended message early in info-processing system
-selection can occur later

21

What are 4 parts of the Treisman's Attenuation Theory?

1. messages
2. attenuator
3. dictionary unit
4. memory

22

What does the attenuator do? (Treisman's)

-analyzes incoming msg in terms of physical char. language + meaning

23

What happens to the attended message? (Treisman's)

-let through at full strength

24

What happens to the unattended message? (Treisman's)

-let through at a much weaker strength

25

What is the dictionary unit? (Treisman's)

-contains words
-words have thresholds of activation

26

In Treisman's Theory what happens to unattended inputs?

-attenuated, but not turned off

27

In Treisman's Theory, How is selection based?

-in an ordered hierarchy:
physical cues, syllabic pattern, specific words, individual words, grammatical structure, meaning

28

What is McKay's model?

-late selection model
-selection of stimuli for final processing doesn't occur until after info has been analyzed for meaning

29

What was McKay's experiment?

-attending ear: ambiguous sentences
-unattended ear: "river" "money"

30

What was the result of McKay's experiment?

-participants had to choose which was closest to meaning of attended message
-meaning of biasing word affected participants' choice
-participants unaware of presentation of biasing words

31

What was McKay's final conclusion?

-biasing words affect subjects' judgements
-so words must be processed to level of meaning even when unattended

32

What is processing capacity?

how much info a person can handle at any given moment

33

What is perceptual load?

difficulty of a given task

34

What are high-load tasks?

-use higher amounts of processing capacity

35

What are low-load tasks?

use lower amounts of processing capacity

36

What is the Load Theory of Attention?

-presentation of task irrelevant to stimulus slows response time
-effect is stronger for easier tasks than harder tasks
-perceptual capcity remains for harder tasks

37

What is the Stroop effect?

-name of word interferes with inability to name ink color
-cannot avoid paying attention to the meanings of words

38

What is the influence of practice of the Stroop Effect?

you can overcome the Stroop Effect to some degree with practice

39

What is overt attention?

shifting attention to one place to another by moving the eyes

40

What is covert attention?

shifting attention from one place to another by keeping the eyes stationary

41

What are saccades?

rapid movements of the eyes from one place to another

42

What are fixations?

short pauses on points of interest

43

What is central vision?

area you are looking at
-fovea

44

What is peripheral vision?

everything off to the side

45

What is stimulus salience?

areas that stand out and capture attention

46

What kind of process is stimulus salience?

-bottom-up process
-depends on physical characteristics of stimulus

47

What is attentional capture?

involuntary shift of attention due to stimulus salience

48

How is scanning based on cognitive factors?

scanning based on meaning of features

49

What is a scene schema?

knowledge about what is contained in typical scenes

50

What kind of process is a scene schema?

top-down
-help guide fixations from one area to another
-result in variations in how people scan scenes

51

What is covert attention used in?

sports

52

What is precueing?

-directing attention without moving the eyes
-participants respond faster to a light at an expected location that at an unexpected location

53

How do we covertly attend to specific objects?

-attention can enhance response to objects
-attention directed to one place on an object, enhancing effect of that attention on other places on object

54

What did Schneider and Shiffrin find about divided attention and practice?

-practice enables people to simultaneously do two things that were difficult at first

55

What was Schneider and Shiffrin's experiment with divided attention?

-divide attention between remembering target + monitoring rapidly presented stimuli

56

What was Schneider and Shiffrin's major conclusion about divided attention?

-practice made it possible for subjects to divide attention
-automatic processing occurs without intention

57

Automatic processing is ____ dependent

task

58

Why is automatic processing task dependent?

-if task is hard, automatic processing not possible even with practice

59

What are 3 things that consisted naturalistic driving?

1. no experimenter present
2. data collected in privately-own vehicle
3. instrumentation = unobtrosive

60

What are 3 advantages of the "naturalistic" approach?

1. more detailed pre-crash/pre-near crash information
2. greater external validity
3. rich database

61

What was the naturalistic driving study?

-100 car participants
-ages 18-73
-wide range of miles driven
-drove on all road classes
-urban, suburban, small amount of rural driving
-sedans and SUVs

62

What was the primary contributing factor in most crashes and collisions (naturalistic driving)

inattention to the forward roadway

63

80% of all crashes + 65% of near crashes involved at least _____

one form of driving inattention just prior to the onset of the conflict

64

93% of the conflict with lead vehicle crashes + minor collisions involved

looking away

65

What 2 factors have the highest associated crash risk?

1. moderately complex secondary tasks
2. driver drowsiness

66

What are some disadvantages to the naturalistic approach?

-costly + logistically complex
-no experimental control over driver experience
-possible recruiting bias due to nature of the study
-extreme age groups missing

67

What was the finding of the Strayer and Johnston simulated driving task?

-participants on cell phone missed twice as many red lights + took longer to apply the brakes
(same result using hands-free cell phone)

68

What is inattentional blindness

stimulus that is not attended is not perceived even though a person might be looking directly at it

69

What experiment was done to show inattentional blindness?

-Cartwright Finch and Lavie
-cross stimulus, choose which is longer
-missed square that popped up

70

What is change blindness?

-if shown two versions of a picture, differences between them not immediately apparent

71

Why does change blindness occur?

identifying differences requires concentrated attention and search

72

What is binding?

-features (color, form, motion, location) combined to create our perception of a coherent object

73

What is the Feature Integration Theory?

-addresses binding problem (how an object's individual features become bound together)

74

What are the 4 components of the Feature Integration Theory?

1. object
2. preattentive stage
3. focused attention stage
4. perception

75

What occurs in the preattentive stage (FIT)

-analyze into features
-automatic, no effort

76

What happens in the focused attention stage (FIT)

-combine features
-attention plays key role

77

What is an example of the Preattentive stage? (FIT)

-rolling red ball:
color, shape, movement
-features processed in separate area of the brain
-exist independently

78

Why do illusory conjunctions occur according to Treisman and Schmidt? (FIT)

features are "free floating"

79

What are 3 qualities of the focused attention stage?

1. "free-floating" features are combine
2. attention plays key role
3. features are combined

80

Who was RM?

-patient with Balint's syndrome

81

What are 2 qualities about RM?

-inability to focus attention on individual objects
-high number of illusory conjunctions reported

82

What part of RM's brain was damaged?

parietal lobe

83

What does FIT suggest about patients like RM?

-lack of focused attention makes it difficult for them to combine features correctly

84

What kind of process is FIT?

-bottom-up

85

What is attentions affect on neural responding?

enhances neural responding

86

Where does attentional processing happen in the brain?

distributed across large number of areas in brain

87

What is a topographic map?

spatial map of visual stimuli on visual cortex

88

What are 2 qualities of a topographic map?

1. each point on visual stimulus causes activity at specific location on visual cortex
2. points next to each other on stimulus cause activity at points next tot each other on visual cortex

89

Using fMRI what did Datta and DeYoe show about attention processing?

-increase in activity in areas corresponding to specific locations where subjects were paying attention to

90

What did Datta and DeYoe create?

attention maps

91

Why are attention maps used for?

-after training classifiers, able to predict where someone was paying attention to

92

What did O'Craven find about attention and objects?

-paying attentino to objects increases activity in parahippocampal gyrus
-focusing on faces, increase in FFA