Chapter Three - Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Three - Perception Deck (53):
1

What is perception?

-experience resulting from stimulation of the senses

2

What are 3 basic concepts of perceptions?

1. perceptions can change based on added info
2. involves a process similar to reasoning/problem solving
3. occur in conjunction with actions

3

Is human perception unique to humans?

-possibly, yes
-AI has failed to match level of perception

4

What is the inverse projection problem?

-task of determining object responsible for a particular image on retina
-involves starting with retinal image
-then extending outward to source of that image

5

Why is perception so difficult for a machine? (2)

1. objects can be hidden or blurred
2. objects look different from different viewpoints (viewpoint invariance)

6

what is bottom-up processing?

-start at bottom of system
-environmental energy stimulates receptor

7

what is top-down processing?

-originates in brain
-top of perceptual system
-previous knowledge affects perception

8

What are direct perception theories?

-bottom-up processing
-perception starts with the senses
-parts are put together

9

What are constructive perception theories?

-top-down processing
-people actively construct perceptions using info based on expectations

10

What is an example of how top-down processing is involved in perception of objects?

-blurred blobs are identical but perceived as different objects due to orientation + context

11

What is speech segmentation?

-ability to tell when one word ends and another begins

12

How is top-down processing involved in speech?

-hearing words in a sentence in a foreign language
-ability to pick out certain words based on context

13

What is the direct pathway model of pain?

-early model, emphasized sensory receptors that send pain messages directly to the brain
-bottom-up processing model

14

What pain phenomenon challenges bottom-up processing of pain?

the placebo effect

15

What is Helmholtz's Theory of Unconscious Inference?

-top-down theory
-some perceptions are result of unconscious assumptions we make about environment
-most of what we know about the world is an inference

16

What is the likelihood principle?

-perceive the world in way that is "most likely" based on our past experiences

17

What is the "Old" view of perceptual organization?

-structuralism
-perception involves adding up sensations

18

What is the new view of perceptual organization?

Gestalt psychologists

19

What do Gestalt psychologists believe?

-mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization

20

What is apparent movement?

-movement is perceived even though nothing is moving
-whole is different than sum of its parts

21

What are the 3 Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization?

1. Law of good continuation
2. Law of pragnanz (simplicity/good figure)
3. Law of similarity

22

What is the law of good continuation?

-lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path

23

What is the law of pragnanz?

-every stimulus pattern is seen so resulting structure is as simple as possible

24

What is the law of similarity?

-similar things appear grouped together

25

Gestalt laws often provide accurate information about properties of _________

the environment

26

Where do the Gestalt Laws come from?

-intrinsic
-role of experience is minor

27

What do modern perceptual psychologists believe?

-perception is influenced by knowledge of regularities in environment (agreement with Helmholtz)

28

What are physical regularities?

regularly occurring physical properties

29

What are semantic regularities?

-characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes

30

What is the oblique effect?

-people can perceive verticals + horizontals more easily than other orientations

31

What is the light-from-above assumption?

-light comes from above
-perceive shadows to inform us about depth + distance

32

What is a scene schema?

-knowledge of what a given scene ordinarily contains
EX: professor's office

33

What is perception according to the inferential approach?

-given an image (input) + the knowledge about regularities of physical world
-pick most probably interpretation of image

34

What is Bayesian Inference?

-one's estimate of the probability of a given outcome is influenced by 2 factors:
1. prior probability
2. likelihood of a given outcome

35

What are the 4 approaches to perception?

1. Helmholtz's unconscious inference
2. Gestalt Laws of organization
3. Regularities in the environment
4. Bayesian inference

36

Which of the 4 approaches to perception are bottom-up? Top-down?

Bottom-Up:
Gestalt Laws of Organization

Top-Down:
Helmholtz's unconscious inference
regularities in environment
Bayesian inference

37

What do modern psychologists claim about the Gestalt Laws?

laws could have also been created by experience

38

What happens to neurons over time?

-become tuned to respond best to what we commonly experience

39

Why is it beneficial that neurons be atuned to stimuli over time?

-natural selection
-neurons can be trained to respond to specific stimuli

40

What is experience-dependent plasticity?

mechanism through which the structure of the brain is changed by experience

41

How did Blakemore and Graham Cooper demonstrate plasticity?

-raised kittens in space in which they only saw vertical black + white stripes on walls
-visual cortex had been reshaped

42

experience-dependent plasticity plays a role in activation of the _________

fusiform face area (FFA)

43

What happened after "Greeble recognition?"

-FFA fired as much for Greebles as it did for faces

44

_____ helps us perceive things in our environment more accurately than static images

movement

45

What are the 2 processing streams?

-what stream: identifying an object
-where stream: identifying object's location

46

What two methods were used to discern the two processing streams?

1. brain ablation
2. neuropsychology

47

How did Ungerleider and Mishkin study about the what and where pathway?

-studied how removing part of a monkey's brain affected its ability to identify an object + determine its location

48

What is object discrimination?

-monkey shown object
-must pick correct object

49

What is landmark discrimination?

-cylinder indicates which side monkey's food is on
-location

50

The temporal lobe controls which pathway?

where/dorsal

51

The occipital lobe controls which pathway?

what/ventral

52

What did Milner and Goodale find?

-studied 34 year old woman with damage to temporal lobe
-asked to rotate card
-asked to mail a card

53

Is the psychological repertoire universal?

no